Profiles

Kaylene Young

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Kaylene Young

Kaylene Young

Senior Research Fellow
Menzies Institute for Medical Research

Hobart CBD Campuses

+61 3 6226 7700 (phone)

Kaylene.Young@utas.edu.au

Cases of Alzheimer's are on the rise and diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is higher in Tasmania than in other places. If Dr. Young and her team can continue to discover and connect the pieces of the puzzle, their work may just turn this around.

"We really are trying to find a treatment for major neurodegenerative diseases. And our hope is that we can find away to rebuild the brain, rebuild the damaged brain..."

Kaylene Young - June 2015

Finding a cure for brain disease

The brain is made up of an intricate web of electrical pathways. These pathways carry messages around the brain that instruct our behaviour, coordination, memory and other vital functions. Each pathway is protected by a coating of insulation. If that insulation is eroded, the pathway is no longer able to carry its message. The information along the pathway gets lost and the result is a loss of brain function. It is this loss of function that characterises diseases like Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Alzheimer's Dementia. 

Currently, scientists don't know how to repair a damaged brain pathway, but Neuroscientist Dr. Kaylene Young, is hoping to change that.

'My research investigates ways of activating brain stem cells. By pushing them in the right direction we hope to re-insulate pathways in the brain and hopefully reverse the symptoms of brain diseases' said Dr. Young.

Dr. Young and her team of researchers have discovered a particular type of brain stem cell in the nervous system that is responsible for making new cells that can insulate neural pathways. 

'OPC cells divide to create new insulating cells. It is the loss of these insulating cells that causes MS. Now that we know about these cells and what they do, we are focused on finding out what turns them on and off. If we can do that, we might have the basis for a cure for MS.'

'It is important to know how to repair damaged cells because by the time people present with symptoms of brain disease, like loss of coordination and changes in behaviour, the damage has already been done. We need to know how to repair that damage.' 

The knowledge that brain stem cells existed, and the idea that the brain could be repaired is what drew Dr. Young to a career in neuroscience.

'When I was in high school the brain stem cell was discovered. The idea that it might be possible to add new cells to the mature brain was incredible to me. I knew then that understanding how to use these cells for brain repair was what I wanted to do with my life.'

Dr Young leads a team of 10 researchers working on this problem. By looking at brain tissue through a microscope, growing live cells, and creating time-lapse video of how brain cells interact and communicate, they are beginning to understand them.

'Each individual research discovery builds our knowledge, giving us a new piece of the puzzle.'

'There is nothing better than a PhD student walking into my office with a huge smile on their face and saying 'Kaylene, you have got to come and see what is happening down the microscope!'' Said Dr. Young.

The team has recently discovered a non-invasive way to massage brain cells to promote brain insulation.

'We are moving this technology into pre-clinical trials now, which is so exciting. This will be our focus for the next five years. We hope to see this technology progress to clinical trials and become a treatment for brain disease. That would be incredible.'

Dr Kaylene Young is an NHMRC Research Fellow in the Menzies Institute for Medical Research. She is interested in neural stem cells and learning how to direct them towards brain repair.

Biography

Dr Kaylene Young completed her PhD in 2005 at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute and then spent 18 months assisting in the successful establishment of the Queensland Brain Institute.  Prior to joining the University of Tasmania in 2011, Kaylene worked as postdoctoral research fellow at University College London (UK), studying brain stem cells.  Her ground-breaking research revealed that a novel population of immature cells, the OPCs, produced a significant number of myelinating (insulating) oligodendrocytes in the mature brain.  Furthermore they could generate a larger number of remyelinating (reinsulating) oligodendrocytes in response to an injury.

Career summary

Qualifications

  • 2005  Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute, University of Melbourne                                                                                      
  • 2000 BSc (Hons) Department of Physiology, Monash University

Memberships

Professional practice

  • Member of the Australasian Neuroscience Society
  • Member of the International Society for Neurochemistry

Committee associations

  • Honours and Graduate Research Committee Member
  • Menzies Institute for Medical Research and School of Medicine Joint Seminar Co-ordinator
  • Menzies Institute for Medical Research Honours Student Liaison

Teaching

Neural development, stem cell biology

Teaching expertise

Dr Young lectures in the field of nervous system development, neural stem and progenitor cell biology, and the general use of cre-lox transgenic technology.

Research Appointments

  • Editorial Board of 'Neural Regeneration Research' 
  • Tasmanian selection panel - Sir John Monash Scholarships 
  • Research Management Council Member, Multiple Sclerosis Research Australia

Research Invitations

  • Multiple Sclerosis ATLAS meeting, Sydney
  • Conference of the Australian Science Teachers Association, Perth
  • Departmental Seminar, the Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute, Monash University
  • Hunter Cell Biology Meeting, Hunter Valley
  • Route28 Summit 'Adult neurogenesis: New frontiers', Frauenchiemsee, Germany
  • National Science Teacher Summer School, Canberra
  • ComBio2014, Canberra
  • Departmental Seminar, Queensland Brain Institute, University of Queensland
  • Australian Neuroscience Society Annual Meeting, Melbourne
  • Departmental Seminar, Florey Neuroscience Institutes, University of Melbourne
  • Myelin Gordon Research Conference 'Biology and Pathobiology of Myelinating Glia', Italy 
  • Presidential Symposium, Australian Neuroscience Society Annual Meeting, Gold Coast

View more on Dr Kaylene Young in WARP

Expertise

  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Alzheimer's dementia
  • Brain stem cells
  • Brain repair
  • Cell-based therapies

Research Themes

Dr Young's research team studies immature stem cell populations in the brain.  She aims to understand the processes that regulate cell generation, in order to direct cell regeneration in the adult central nervous system.

Awards

Winner of the 2014 National Stem Cell Foundation of Australia Metcalf Prize for Stem Cell Research

Current projects

Glia is a broad category of cells that includes neural stem cells, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and microglia.  Dr Young's research team studies each of these cell types, as aims to understand the processes that regulate cell generation and regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS). They are particularly interested in the potential of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) for the treatment of demyelinating disorders such as Multiple Sclerosis, neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, and mental health disorders including Schizophrenia.  OPCs are an immature cell type that produces large numbers of cells known as oligodendrocytes.  Oligodendrocytes are essential for normal nervous system function as they myelinate (insulate) neurons, allowing them to carry information (in the form of electrical impulses) rapidly between brain regions.  Dr Young's research has shown that OPCs produce new oligodendrocytes throughout life. The addition of new myelin to the mature nervous system has the potential to fine-tune the speed of information transfer or even change the activity of a neural circuit.  As a result this discovery has produced a fundamental shift in our understanding of the process of myelination, and raises many questions surrounding the plastic changes that occur within the mature brain.  Dr Young's lab aims to understand the processes regulating OPC behaviour, oligodendrocyte generation and myelination in the adult central nervous system.

Fields of Research

  • Cellular Nervous System (110902)
  • Central Nervous System (110903)
  • Neurology and Neuromuscular Diseases (110904)
  • Neurosciences (110999)
  • Biochemistry and Cell Biology (060199)
  • Neurogenetics (060410)
  • Animal Physiology - Systems (060603)
  • Autonomic Nervous System (110901)
  • Cell Development, Proliferation and Death (060103)
  • Quantitative Genetics (incl. Disease and Trait Mapping Genetics) (060412)

Research Objectives

  • Expanding Knowledge in the Biological Sciences (970106)
  • Nervous System and Disorders (920111)
  • Neurodegenerative Disorders Related to Ageing (920112)
  • Expanding Knowledge in the Medical and Health Sciences (970111)
  • Expanding Knowledge in Psychology and Cognitive Sciences (970117)
  • Inherited Diseases (incl. Gene Therapy) (920110)
  • Specific Population Health (excl. Indigenous Health) (920599)

Publications

Total publications

38

Journal Article

(33 outputs)
YearCitationAltmetrics
2017Brizuela M, Blizzard CA, Chuckowree JA, Pitman KA, Young KM, et al., 'Mild traumatic brain injury leads to decreased inhibition and a differential response of calretinin positive interneurons in the Injured cortex', Journal of Neurotrauma, 34, (17) pp. 2504-2517. ISSN 0897-7151 (2017) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1089/neu.2017.4977 [eCite] [Details]

Co-authors: Brizuela M; Blizzard CA; Chuckowree JA; Pitman KA; Dickson T

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2017Clark RM, Blizzard CA, Young KM, King AE, Dickson TC, 'Calretinin and Neuropeptide Y interneurons are differentially altered in the motor cortex of the SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS', Scientific Reports, 7 Article 44461. ISSN 2045-2322 (2017) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1038/srep44461 [eCite] [Details]

Co-authors: Clark RM; Blizzard CA; King AE; Dickson TC

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2017Gasperini RJ, Pavez M, Thompson AC, Mitchell Camila, Hardy H, et al., 'How does calcium interact with the cytoskeleton to regulate growth cone motility during axon pathfinding?', Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences, 84 pp. 29-35. ISSN 1044-7431 (2017) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1016/j.mcn.2017.07.006 [eCite] [Details]

Co-authors: Gasperini RJ; Pavez M; Thompson AC; Foa L

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2017Cullen CL, Young KM, 'Can thyroid hormone analogues be used to overcome hypomyelination and demyelination of the central nervous system?', EBioMedicine pp. 1-2. ISSN 2352-3964 (2017) [Contribution to Refereed Journal]

DOI: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2017.11.004 [eCite] [Details]

Co-authors: Cullen CL

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2016Auderset L, Landowski LM, Foa L, Young KM, 'Low density lipoprotein receptor related proteins as regulators of neural stem and progenitor cell function', Stem Cells International Article 2108495. ISSN 1687-9678 (2016) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1155/2016/2108495 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 7Web of Science - 7

Co-authors: Landowski LM; Foa L

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2016Cullen CL, Young KM, 'How does transcranial magnetic stimulation influence glial cells in the central nervous system?', Frontiers in Neural Circuits, 10 Article 26. ISSN 1662-5110 (2016) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.3389/fncir.2016.00026 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 7Web of Science - 6

Co-authors: Cullen CL

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2016Handley EE, Pitman KA, Dawkins E, Young KM, Clark RM, et al., 'Synapse dysfunction of layer V pyramidal neurons precedes neurodegeneration in a mouse model of TDP-43 proteinopathies', Cerebral Cortex, 27, (7) pp. 3630-3647. ISSN 1047-3211 (2016) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1093/cercor/bhw185 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Web of Science - 4

Co-authors: Pitman KA; Dawkins E; Clark RM; Dickson TC; Blizzard CA

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2016Auderset L, Cullen CL, Young KM, 'Low density lipoprotein-receptor related protein 1 is differentially expressed by neuronal and glial populations in the developing and mature mouse central nervous system', PLoS One, 11, (6) Article e0155878. ISSN 1932-6203 (2016) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0155878 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 4Web of Science - 4

Co-authors: Auderset L; Cullen CL

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2016Pitman KA, Young KM, 'Activity-dependent calcium signalling in oligodendrocyte generation', International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, 77, (Pt A) pp. 30-34. ISSN 1357-2725 (2016) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1016/j.biocel.2016.05.018 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1

Co-authors: Pitman KA

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2016Walker T, Huang J, Young Kaylene, 'Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells in Nervous System Function and Therapy', Stem Cells International Article 1890568. ISSN 1687-9678 (2016) [Non Refereed Article]

[eCite] [Details]

2016Wang S, Bolos M, Clark R, Cullen CL, Southam KA, et al., 'Amyloid β precursor protein regulates neuron survival and maturation in the adult mouse brain', Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences, 77 pp. 21-33. ISSN 1044-7431 (2016) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1016/j.mcn.2016.09.002 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 4Web of Science - 3

Co-authors: Wang S; Bolos M; Clark R; Cullen CL; Southam KA; Foa L; Dickson TC

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2016O'Rourke M, Cullen CL, Auderset L, Pitman KA, Achatz D, et al., 'Evaluating Tissue-Specific Recombination in a Pdgfrα-CreERT2 Transgenic Mouse Line', PLoS One, 11, (9) Article e0162858. ISSN 1932-6203 (2016) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0162858 [eCite] [Details]

Co-authors: Cullen CL; Pitman KA; Achatz D

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2015Brizuela M, Blizzard CA, Chuckowree JA, Dawkins E, Gasperini RJ, et al., 'The microtubule-stabilizing drug Epothilone D increases axonal sprouting following transection injury in vitro', Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences, 66, (Part B) pp. 129-140. ISSN 1044-7431 (2015) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1016/j.mcn.2015.02.006 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 11Web of Science - 10

Co-authors: Brizuela M; Blizzard CA; Chuckowree JA; Dawkins E; Gasperini RJ; Dickson TC

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2015Young Kaylene, Ferreira Solene, 'Treating Alzheimer's disease with stem cells: how far have we come?', Cell and Gene Therapy Insights pp. 133-137. ISSN 2059-7800 (2015) [Contribution to Refereed Journal]

[eCite] [Details]

2014Bolos M, Hu Y, Young KM, Foa L, Small DH, 'Neurogenin 2 mediates amyloid-β precursor protein-stimulated neurogenesis', Journal of Biological Chemistry, 289, (45) pp. 31253-31261. ISSN 0021-9258 (2014) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M114.581918 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 5Web of Science - 5

Co-authors: Bolos M; Hu Y; Foa L; Small DH

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2014Dawkins E, Gasperini R, Hu Y, Cui H, Vincent AJ, et al., 'The N-terminal fragment of the β-amyloid precursor protein of Alzheimer's disease (N-APP) binds to phosphoinositide-rich domains on the surface of hippocampal neurons', Journal of Neuroscience Research, 92, (11) pp. 1478-1489. ISSN 1097-4547 (2014) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1002/jnr.23422 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 3Web of Science - 3

Co-authors: Dawkins E; Gasperini R; Hu Y; Cui H; Vincent AJ; Bolos M; Foa L; Small DH

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2014O'Rourke M, Gasperini R, Young KM, 'Adult myelination: wrapping up neuronal plasticity', Neural Regeneration Research, 9, (13) pp. 1261-1264. ISSN 1673-5374 (2014) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.4103/1673-5374.137571 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 9Web of Science - 10

Co-authors: Gasperini R

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2014Small DH, Hu Y, Bolos M, Dawkins E, Foa L, et al., 'β-Amyloid precursor protein: function in stem cell development and Alzheimer's disease brain', Neurodegenerative Diseases, 13, (2-3) pp. 96-98. ISSN 1660-2854 (2014) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1159/000353686 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 4Web of Science - 4

Co-authors: Small DH; Hu Y; Bolos M; Dawkins E; Foa L

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2013Hu Y, Hung AC, Cui H, Dawkins E, Bolos M, et al., 'Role of cystatin C in amyloid precursor protein-induced proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells', Journal of Biological Chemistry, 288, (26) pp. 18853-18862. ISSN 0021-9258 (2013) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M112.443671 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 11Web of Science - 11

Co-authors: Hu Y; Hung AC; Cui H; Dawkins E; Bolos M; Foa L; Small DH

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2013Young KM, Psachoulia K, Tripathi RB, Dunn SJ, Cossell L, et al., 'Oligodendrocyte dynamics in the healthy adult CNS: evidence for myelin remodeling', Neuron, 77, (5) pp. 873-885. ISSN 0896-6273 (2013) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2013.01.006 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 236Web of Science - 231

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2013Wang S, Young KM, 'White matter plasticity in adulthood', Neuroscience: An International Journal pp. 1-13. ISSN 0306-4522 (2013) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2013.10.018 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 41Web of Science - 39

Co-authors: Wang S

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2012Baizabal JM, Cano-Martinez A, Valencia C, Santa-Olalla J, Young KM, et al., 'Glial Commitment of Mesencephalic Neural Precursor Cells Expanded as Neurospheres Precludes Their Engagement in Niche-Dependent Dopaminergic Neurogenesis', Stem Cells and Development, 21, (7) pp. 1047-1058. ISSN 1547-3287 (2012) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1089/scd.2011.0241 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 4Web of Science - 4

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2012Clarke LE, Young KM, Hamilton NB, Li H, Richardson WD, et al., 'Properties and Fate of Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells in the Corpus Callosum, Motor Cortex, and Piriform Cortex of the Mouse', Journal of Neuroscience, 32, (24) pp. 8173-8185. ISSN 0270-6474 (2012) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0928-12.2012 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 78Web of Science - 75

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2011Richardson WD, Young KM, Tripathi RB, McKenzie I, 'NG2-glia as multipotent neural stem cells: Fact or fantasy?', Neuron, 70, (4) pp. 661-673. ISSN 0896-6273 (2011) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2011.05.013 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 154Web of Science - 149

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2010Tripathi RB, Rivers LE, Young KM, Jamen F, Richardson WD, 'NG2 Glia Generate New Oligodendrocytes But Few Astrocytes in a Murine Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Model of Demyelinating Disease ', Journal of Neuroscience, 30, (48) pp. 16383-16390 . ISSN 0270-6474 (2010) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3411-10.2010 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 110Web of Science - 106

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2010Young KM, Mitsumori T, Pringle N, Grist M, Kessaris N, et al., 'An Fgfr3-iCreER(T2) Transgenic Mouse Line for Studies of Neural Stem Cells and Astrocytes', Glia, 58, (8) pp. 943-953. ISSN 0894-1491 (2010) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1002/glia.20976 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 56Web of Science - 54

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2010Zawadzka M, Rivers LE, Fancy SPJ, Zhao C, Tripathi R, et al., 'CNS-Resident Glial Progenitor/Stem Cells Produce Schwann Cells as well as Oligodendrocytes during Repair of CNS Demyelination', Cell Stem Cell , 6, (6) pp. 578-590. ISSN 1934-5909 (2010) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1016/j.stem.2010.04.002 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 236Web of Science - 220

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2009Psachoulia K, Jamen F, Young KM, Richardson WD, 'Cell cycle dynamics of NG2 cells in the postnatal and ageing brain', Neuron Glia Biology, 5, (3-4) pp. 57-67. ISSN 1740-925X (2009) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1017/S1740925X09990354 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 103Web of Science - 94

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2008Rivers LE, Young KM, Rizzi M, Jamen F, Psachoulia K, et al., 'PDGFRA/NG2 glia generate myelinating oligodendrocytes and piriform projection neurons in adult mice', Nature Neuroscience, 11, (12) pp. 1392-1401. ISSN 1097-6256 (2008) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1038/nn.2220 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 418Web of Science - 402

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2007Young KM, Fogarty M, Kessaris N, Richardson WD, 'Subventricular zone stem cells are heterogeneous with respect to their embryonic origins and neurogenic fates in the adult olfactory bulb', Journal of Neuroscience, 27, (31) pp. 8286-8296. ISSN 0270-6474 (2007) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0476-07.2007 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 192Web of Science - 190

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2007Young KM, Merson TD, Sotthibundhu A, Coulson EJ, Bartlett PF, 'p75 Neurotrophin receptor expression defines a population of BDNF-responsive neurogenic precursor cells', Journal of Neuroscience, 27, (19) pp. 5146-5155. ISSN 0270-6474 (2007) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0654-07.2007 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 104Web of Science - 89

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2006Emery B, Merson TD, Snell C, Young KM, Ernst M, et al., 'SOCS3 negatively regulates LIF signaling in neural precursor cells', Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences, 31, (4) pp. 739-747. ISSN 1044-7431 (2006) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1016/j.mcn.2006.01.005 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 22Web of Science - 22

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2006Young KM, Bartlett PF, Coulson EJ, 'Neural progenitor number is regulated by nuclear factor-kappa B p65 and p50 subunit-dependent proliferation rather than cell survival', Journal of Neuroscience Research, 83, (1) pp. 39-49. ISSN 0360-4012 (2006) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1002/jnr.20702 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 24Web of Science - 20

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Conference Publication

(5 outputs)
YearCitationAltmetrics
2014Bolos M, Hu Y, Foa L, Young K, Small D, 'The role of Neurogenin2 in APP-stimulated neural stem or progenitor cell differentiation', 34th Annual Meeting Australasian Neuroscience Society, January, Adelaide, Australia (2014) [Conference Extract]

[eCite] [Details]

Co-authors: Bolos M; Hu Y; Foa L; Small D

2014Bolos M, Hu Y, Foa L, Young KM, Small DH, 'APP regulates neural stem or progenitor cell differentiation through neurogenin 2 expresssion', Federation of European Neuroscience Societies, 5-9 July, Milan, Italy (2014) [Conference Extract]

[eCite] [Details]

Co-authors: Bolos M; Hu Y; Foa L; Small DH

2014Hu Y, Bolos M, Dawkins E, Foa L, Young K, et al., 'Cystatin C regulates neural stem or progenitor cell proliferation (Poster)', 34th Annual Meeting Australasian Neuroscience Society, January, Adelaide, Australia (2014) [Conference Extract]

[eCite] [Details]

Co-authors: Hu Y; Bolos M; Dawkins E; Foa L; Small D

2013Dawkins E, Vincent AJ, Gasperini R, Cui H, Young K, et al., 'A direct interaction of Aβ with anionic cellular lipids mediates binding to neurons (Poster)', 12th International Conference on Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases, Florence, Italy (2013) [Conference Extract]

[eCite] [Details]

Co-authors: Dawkins E; Vincent AJ; Gasperini R; Cui H; Foa L; Small DH

2013Hu Y, Hung AC, Cui H, Dawkins E, Foa L, et al., 'APP stimulates neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation by increasing cystatin C secretion. (Poster)', 33rd Annual Meeting Australian Neuroscience Society, January, Melbourne, Australia (2013) [Conference Extract]

[eCite] [Details]

Co-authors: Hu Y; Hung AC; Cui H; Dawkins E; Foa L; Small DH

Grants & Funding

Funding Summary

Number of grants

16

Total funding

$5,153,096

Projects

Investigating ferroptosis as a novel mechanism of oligodendrocyte death. (2018)$30,000
Description
This project aims to understand the mode of cell death induced by a stroke, and determine the capacity for already developed therapeutics to rescue these cells. By saving oligodendrocytes from death after stroke, we aim to reduce the lesion size, but also keep these critical cells in place to support nerve cell survival and function.
Funding
Brain Foundation ($30,000)
Scheme
Grant-Research
Administered By
University of Tasmania
Research Team
Cullen CL; Young Kaylene; Sutherland BA
Year
2018
Using non-invasive magnetic stimulation to promote remyelination (2018 - 2020)$664,868
Description
In patients with multiple sclerosis, brain insulation is lost from nerves. This leads to permanent and progressive disability. We have identified a non-invasive method of magnetic stimulation, and have shown that it increases the number of new insulating cells naturally added to the brain. In this study we will determine the extent to which our new treatment can induce insulation replacement to nerves in models of multiple sclerosis.
Funding
National Health & Medical Research Council ($664,868)
Scheme
Grant-Project
Administered By
University of Tasmania
Research Team
Young Kaylene; Rodger Jennifer; Cullen CL
Period
2018 - 2020
Grant Reference
1139041
Enhancing activity to drive myelin repair in preclinical models of multiple sclerosis (2017 - 2019)$170,000
Description
This project examines the ability of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to promote remyelination in two preclinical models of multiple sclerosis.
Funding
Multiple Sclerosis Research Australia ($170,000)
Scheme
Grant-Project
Administered By
University of Tasmania
Research Team
Young Kaylene; Cullen CL; Rodger Jennifer
Period
2017 - 2019
Preclinical trial of rTMS in Multiple Sclerosis (2016 - 2018)$207,000
Description
This project will contribute new knowledge about the role of oligodendrocyte in MS pathogenesis and the importance of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells as a therapeutic target in the treatment of MS
Funding
Multiple Sclerosis Research Australia ($207,000)
Scheme
Fellowship-Postdoctoral
Administered By
University of Tasmania
Research Team
Cullen CL; Young Kaylene
Period
2016 - 2018
How do rare genetic variants cause multiple sclerosis? (2016)$35,000
Description
To determine how rare genetic variants, identified by whole-genome sequencing multiple sclerosis (MS) families, influence cell function.
Funding
Menzies Institute for Medical Research ($35,000)
Scheme
Grant - Development Grant
Administered By
University of Tasmania
Research Team
Charlesworth JC; Young Kaylene; Pitman KA
Year
2016
Inhibitory dysfunction in the cortex: Tackling MND from the top down (2016)$248,916
Funding
Motor Neurone Disease Research Institute of Australia Inc ($248,916)
Scheme
Standford Family MND Collaboration Grant
Administered By
University of Tasmania
Research Team
Dickson TC; Young Kaylene; Bekkers J
Year
2016
Myelin remodelling: a novel form of neural plasticity (2015 - 2017)$586,299
Funding
National Health & Medical Research Council ($586,299)
Scheme
Grant-Project
Administered By
University of Tasmania
Research Team
Young Kaylene
Period
2015 - 2017
Grant Reference
1077792
Neuron to glia signalling: learning how synaptic signalling can promote CNS remyelination (2014 - 2016)$589,583
Description
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) and oligodendrocyte damage contribute significantly to the mental and physical impairmentsseen in periventricular leukomalacia (pre and postnatal white matter injury leading to cerebral palsy), spinal cord injury, CNS inflammation, multiple sclerosis and stroke (see background). We have previously demonstrated that new oligodendrocytes are continuously born and added to the central nervous system (CNS), formed from resident OPCs (Rivers*, Young* et al., 2008; Psachoulia et al., 2009; Clarke*, Young* et al., 2012), and that these OPCs have a significant capacity for generating larger numbers of oligodendrocytes in response to a demyelinating injury (Tripathi et al., 2010; Zawadzka et al., 2010).However this endogenous repair system will need to be therapeutically enhanced in order achieve efficacious repair, as many of the newborn OPCs remain in an immature state and fail to differentiate into mature, myelinating oligodendrocytes (Tripathi et al., 2010). There is a body of evidence demonstrating that electrical activity from neurons to OPCs (synaptic and extrasynaptic) in the form of glutamate, GABA and ATP signalling, instructs OPC proliferation, migration, differentiation and myelination (see background). Furthermore, neuronal activity induces an intracellular calcium signal in OPC that instructs the local translation of myelin proteins (Wake et al., 2011). By combining Dr Youngs expertise in OPC biology, Dr Foas expertise in calcium signalling and Dr Gasperinis expertise in synapse biochemistry, we aim to identify key regulators in the pathway coupling neuronal electrical transmission with OPC intracellular calcium signalling, and subsequently OPC differentiation, in a bid to identify therapeutic targets that will increase axon-OPC connectivity,oligodendrocyte differentiation, survival and myelination for the treatment of de/dysmyelinating disorders.
Funding
National Health & Medical Research Council ($589,583)
Scheme
Grant-Project
Administered By
University of Tasmania
Research Team
Young Kaylene; Foa LC; Gasperini RJ
Period
2014 - 2016
Grant Reference
1066025
Functional Neurogenesis in the injured Neocortex of the Nonhuman Primate (2014 - 2016)$935,558
Description
It is firmly established that new neurones are generated in the hippocampus and the olfactory bulbs throughout adult life. Whetherneurogenesis can be induced in other areas of the adult CNS following injury and whether these neurones can functionally integrate into existing neuralcircuits remains controversial. Most keenly debated is the idea that new neurones could be generated in the adult neocortex and contribute to neural repair,especially as this area is often affected by conditions such as stroke and traumatic brain injury.An important lead to understanding cortical neurogenesis following injury is the finding that non-neurogenic compartments of the uninjured rodent andhuman CNS contain multipotent neural precursor cells (NPCs) that exhibit latent neurogenic potential in vitro. We have recently identified a population ofmultipotent NPCs residing in the neocortex of the neonatal and adult marmoset monkey that exhibit latent proliferative activity in response to defined growthfactors in vitro and display properties closely aligned to those of human NPCs. This seminal discovery demonstrates that NPCs with the potential to generatenew neurones reside in the visual cortex of both neonatal and adult monkeys.We now seek to directly assess the contribution of cortical NPCs in neocortical repair following injury in neonatal and adult marmosets.Project aims:[1] Assess the response of endogenous neocortical NPCs to ischemic injury and their capacity to generate functional neurones in vivo.[2] Characterise the effect of neocortical ischemic injury upon the properties of NPCs.[3] Evaluate the capacity for in vitro expanded autologous NPCs to engraft, differentiate and functionally integrate into the primate neocortex after ischemic injury.
Funding
National Health & Medical Research Council ($935,558)
Scheme
Grant-Project
Administered By
Monash University
Research Team
Bourne J; Merson T; Young Kaylene
Period
2014 - 2016
Grant Reference
1057698
Adding new cells to the mature central nervous system - their role in plasticity, maintenance and repair (Level 2) (2013 - 2016)$439,920
Funding
National Health & Medical Research Council ($439,920)
Scheme
Fellowship-Career Development
Administered By
University of Tasmania
Research Team
Young Kaylene
Period
2013 - 2016
Grant Reference
1045240
Establishing a state-of-the-art 'Live Cell Recording and Imaging Facility' at Menzies Research Institute Tasmania (2013)$22,000
Funding
Rebecca L Cooper Medical Research Foundation ($22,000)
Scheme
Grant
Administered By
University of Tasmania
Research Team
Young Kaylene; Small DH; Foa LC; Dickson TC
Year
2013
Equipment: Spinning Disk Confocal Microscope (2013)$50,000
Funding
The Marian and EH Flack Trust ($50,000)
Scheme
Grant-Project
Administered By
University of Tasmania
Research Team
Young Kaylene
Year
2013
New projection neurons are added to the brain throughout life - identifying their source and function (2012 - 2014)$488,542
Funding
National Health & Medical Research Council ($488,542)
Scheme
Grant-Project
Administered By
University of Tasmania
Research Team
Young Kaylene
Period
2012 - 2014
Grant Reference
1030939
Understanding oligodendrocyte turnover: the key to functional remyelination (2012 - 2013)$180,000
Funding
Multiple Sclerosis Research Australia ($180,000)
Scheme
Grant-Project
Administered By
University of Tasmania
Research Team
Young Kaylene; Emery B; Merson T
Period
2012 - 2013
The Clive and Vera Ramaciotti Foundations Equipment Grant - Multi-User Electrophysiology Facility (2012)$62,633
Funding
Clive & Vera Ramaciotti Foundation ($62,633)
Scheme
Grant-Equipment
Administered By
University of Tasmania
Research Team
Young Kaylene
Year
2012
Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells - A new target for Alzheimer's Disease Treatment (2011 - 2013)$442,777
Funding
Bupa Foundation/Alzheimer's Society ($442,777)
Scheme
Grant-Specialist Research
Administered By
University of Tasmania
Research Team
Young Kaylene; Small DH
Period
2011 - 2013

Research Supervision

Current

12

Completed

3

Current

DegreeTitleCommenced
PhDDeciphering the Role of STIM1 in Nervous System Development2013
PhDIdentifying Key Regulators of Myelination in the Central Nervous System2014
PhDInvestigating the role of oligodendrocyte cells in mediating dementia-related demyelination2014
PhDIs Adult Oligodendrocyte Generation Protective in the Early Stages of Alzheimers Disease?2015
PhDMicrotubule Stabilisation: Promoting Adaptive Plasticity, Brain Healing and Functional Recovery Following Traumatic Brain Injury2015
PhDThe Role of LRP1 in Promoting Oligodendrocyte Repair in Multiple Sclerosis2016
PhDDoes Myelination Contribute to Learned Fear and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder?2016
PhDIdentifying the Cause of Nervous System Damage in Multiple Sclerosis2017
PhDTranscriptional Control of Gene Networks in Living Neurons2017
PhDImproving the Process of Drug Development in Stroke2017
PhDIdentifying Functional Causal Variants in Multiple Sclerosis2017
PhDDo MS-Associated Genetic Changes in Vitamin D Metabolism Affect the Function of T Cells2017

Completed

DegreeTitleCompleted
PhDInterneuron Dysfunction in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Candidate: Rosemary Maree Clark
2017
PhDInjury Induced Plasticity in Primary Neuronal Culture and the Mature Brain
Candidate: Mariana Del Valle Brizuela
2016
PhDRole of Amyloid Precursor Protein in Neural Stem/Progenitor Cell Proliferation and Differentiation
Candidate: Yanling Hu
2016