Australian Standard Material Testing
The Australian Standard for Chain of custody (AS 4707) is a credible inventory control system providing a quality assurance standard for tracking wood or forest products that have originated from certified forests. It is a voluntary application that can prove beneficial in domestic and international markets, assuring consumers that the wood and forest products being purchased are sourced from certified and sustainably managed forests. CoC tracks wood or forest products through all intermediate-processing stages before products reach consumers. These intermediate processes may include: harvesting, transportation, primary and secondary processing, manufacturing, re-manufacturing, distribution and sales. This inventory control system providing a quality assurance standard is not only for wood or forest products, but is also relevant for mixed products which may be a compilation of virgin and recycled raw wood material. CoC provides a clear statement to consumers that wood, forest and mixed products are of a high standard that meet national performance requirements.
If your organisation is seeking accredited, independent, third party chain of custody certification please contact us at CSAW as we have trained advisors to manage your particular certification process.
The objective of visual stress grading is to provide timber manufacturers, suppliers & users with national standard requirements for the visual grading of sawn softwood and hardwood that is intended for structural use. Visual stress grading is influenced by the inherent strength of the relevant timber species as well as the quality of the particular specimen being tested. There are seven strength groups for unseasoned timber, and eight for seasoned timber, there is a relationship between these strength grades and the visual grade of a respective timber. Structural grading standards monitor strength reducing characteristics, which place limits on the size of, and strength of structural members. Strength reducing characteristics may include: compression failures and other fractures, occluded branch stubs, termite galleries, resin pockets, bark pockets, overgrowths of injury, shakes, splits, end-splits and decay, width of growth rings and level of density. Timber grade descriptions can be found listed in the Australian Standard specifications for structural timber, each structural grade of timber must satisfy the appropriate Australian standard requirements to assure a certified grade quality.
At CSAW we have the capability to manage Australian Standard visual stress grading for both hardwood and softwood, please contact us if your company or organisation is interested in this service.
The Janka hardness test is an industry standard test for measuring the durability of a timber product in terms of denting and wear, the test is generally used to test timber flooring. The Janka hardness test measures the force (kN) required to penetrate an 11.28mm steel ball to half its diameter into the test specimen. The measurement in kilonewtons (kN) is then given a more general rating into the categories of: soft, moderately hard, hard and very hard for easier consumer understanding. Not only does the Janka hardness test give an industry standard rating of how hard wearing the timber product is, it also gives an indication of the workability of the material.
If your business or organisation requires Janka hardness testing, or you would like more information, please contact us at CSAW.
It is realized that a structural timber member has significantly less strength within the wood fibres of the member if there is sloping grain, which greatly reduces the performance of the member. Test methods determine whether or not a timber specimen has slope of grain and the magnitude of the slope. There are four test methods to determine slope of grain in timber specimens. They are slope of grain by scribe, slope of grain by reference to surface checks, slope of grain by splintering, and compound slope of grain. Not all tests may be required, it simply depends on the specimen being tested.
If your business or company requires a slope of grain test, or would like more information, please contact us at CSAW as we have trained technicians qualified to perform this test to AS/NZS 1080.2.
There are two methods for testing moisture content in timber; oven drying, and the electric meter method.
Oven drying requires a forced draught or convection oven. Cutting of test pieces depends on the motive of the test and information required. Test pieces are weighed and put into a 103°C ± 2°C oven for 18-24 hours. To ensure constant mass the pieces are reweighed, documented and put back into the oven for a further 2-5 hours. When within 0.2% of the previous weight a constant mass is achieved. Constant weight is subtracted from the initial weight, then worked out as a percentage. There is then a written report to document the Australian standard process and relevant outcomes.
The electrical meter method is generally accurate to within 1% when testing timber with a moisture content of 7%-20% and is not suitable for timber with a moisture content more than 40% or less than 6%. It is also less accurate if seawater, preservatives, or paints and oils affect the timber. This method is appropriate for routine use in timber yards and processing industries to monitor moisture levels as it is quick with no destruction to the timber.
If your business or organisation requires moisture content testing to AS/NZS 1080.1 please contact us at CSAW.
Density testing is a way to determine the mass of a timber volume through both physical and mechanical testing. Timber test pieces can be of any easily measured shape with a particular squared cross section, there are to be no less than 5 growth rings in the section.
To determine the density of the test piece of timber at the time of testing it must be weighed and measured for volume accurately, accurate moisture content is also required. For the density of the timber sample in absolutely dry condition, the test piece must be dried to the point of constant mass at gradual pace to minimise deformation, weight and volume measurements must be collected immediately.
For determining conventional density the moisture content of the test piece must be equal or greater than the timbers fibre saturation point. The timber is soaked in distilled water at room temperature until there are no more changes to its dimensions, volume measurements are then taken and the test piece is weighed after being dried to constant mass.
The results of each test are then calculated and the results are written up into an Australian Standard test report.
If your business or organisation requires density testing to AS 1080.3, or you would like more information, please contact us at CSAW.
The Australian Standard for assessment of drying quality outlines the techniques for specifying moisture content and other drying quality standards for solid seasoned wood products, both hardwood and softwood with a maximum of 80mm thickness. It is design for accurate assessment of the drying quality of a pack, stack or charge of dry timber. This standard is intended for the use of processors, merchants and users. In this standard drying quality classes are described for timber classifying purposes.
For accurate results it is ideal to implement the assessment requirements within the drying facility itself as external deliveries can be influenced by uncontrolled variables such as weather protection which can compromise the moisture content and therefor affect the accuracy of the overall assessment.
This standard can be used in industry to express measures of quality assessment within quality control documentation and is also useful for detailing quality specification of products for use in supply agreements with merchants or users.
If your organisation or business requires an assessment of drying quality according to Australian standards please contact us at CSAW for further information.
The Australian standard for grade description is for producers of sawn and milled hardwood timber products that are intended for use in building applications. Timber grading is based on visual assessment of individual pieces. The four grades of hardwood are select grade, medium feature grade, high feature grade and parquet clear.
The size of features in the timber and the proximity of features are the key focus when grading the timber. There is a maximum amount of feature permitted for each grade. Grade descriptions of this nature are not ranked in order of quality rather they are ranked on the relationship of their appearance comparative to the feature grade.
As grading is based on visual analysis and a desired aesthetic as well as functional consideration, different levels of feature grading are more or less desirable depending on their intended application.
If your business or organisation requires Australian Standard grade description testing, or you would like further information, please contact us at CSAW.
The Australian standard for testing moisture content within reconstituted wood based panels is a required certification process for companies or organisations involved with the manufacturing process of such panels. The moisture content of reconstituted wood based panels is measured by the loss of mass of each test piece between its original state and its dried state upon achieving constant mass. The accuracy of weighing test pieces must be within 0.05%. The loss of mass is then calculated as a percentage of the overall mass after drying. Drying is a delicate process requiring a ventilated drying oven capable of being controlled at 103 ± 2°C. The resulting moisture content of the test pieces then give an accurate indication of the moisture content of whole panels.
At CSAW we are able to test the moisture content of reconstituted wood base panels according to AS 4266.3, for further information please contact us.
A collection of 25 exemplary projects illustrating the use of timber in internal applications. Includes residential, commercial, legal and government buildings, with detailed timber schedules, and summaries of the design, technical considerations and approaches undertaken by the architects and designers.
This resource includes studies of 18 exemplary Australian timber buildings, representing the work of some the country’s leading architects and engineers. Each study presents the building in drawings and photographs, and describes their architectural and technical context.
A collation of general and technical data of the main species commercially available from Tasmania. Each of the species listed has a usage and descriptive overview, details the resource and management of the species, and lists the various technical and specification properties of the timber and its general workability characteristics.
Information source on appearance application grading; Select, Medium Feature, Standard and High Feature.
- Tasmanian Oak Grades (PDF 211.3KB)-Tasmanian Oak for appearance applications is available in three grades: Select (SEL), Medium Feature - Standard (MF) and High Feature (HF).
- Grades of Blackwood (PDF 196.5KB) - Blackwood for appearance applications is available in two standard defined grades, Select (SEL) & High Feature (HF), and one industry grade, Black & White (B&W).
Essential for the successful installation of timber flooring and timber construction, moisture content readings and corrections for timber species, are outlined in a series of handy toolbox cards.
- Use of Moisture Meters on Tasmanian Timber (PDF 34.6KB) - This guide describes the general procedures for using a moisture meter on Tasmanian timbers.
- Blackwood Moisture Meter Correction Card (PDF 25.2KB) - This guide provides the corrected moisture content when using a resistance moisture meter in Blackwood of a given temperature.
- Use of Moisture Meters on Tasmanian Oak (PDF 56.4KB) - This guide provides the corrected moisture content when using a resistance moisture meter in generic Tasmanian Oak of a given temperature.
- Myrtle Moisture Meter Correction Card (PDF 24.6KB) - This guide provides the corrected moisture content when using a resistance moisture meter in Myrtle of a given temperature.
- Eucalyptus obliqua Immature Moisture Meter Card (PDF 26.0KB) - This guide provides the corrected moisture content when using a resistance moisture meter in regrowth Eucalyptus obliqua (messmate) of a given temperature.
- Eucalyptus oblique Mature Moisture Meter Card (PDF 26.0KB) - This guide provides the corrected moisture content when using a resistance moisture meter in mature Eucalyptus obliqua (messmate) of a given temperature.
- Eucalyptus regnans and E. delegatensis Moisture Meter Card (PDF 26.1KB) - This guide provides the corrected moisture content when using a resistance moisture meter in Eucalyptus regnans and E. delegatensis of a given temperature.
A series of flooring guides; from advice for selecting appropriate timber flooring types for domestic applications and varying substrates, through to detailed illustrated installation procedures. With a selection of information styles, there is a guide suitable for the experienced professional installer or the home renovator.
- Timber flooring options (PDF 423.9KB) - Timber is manufactured into a range of flooring products. This illustrated guide can help you identify the ideal flooring option for your home or office.
- Overview flooring installation guide (PDF 211.3KB) - This short guide provides a quick reference to the main points of installing strip timber flooring either on joists or as an overlay.
- Installing Tasmanian Strip Flooring on Joists (PDF 132.8KB) - This is a detailed guide for installing conventional strip flooring on joists. It covers all the main points you need to know for board selection, storage and site preparation, installation and finishing.
- Installing Tasmanian Strip Overlay Flooring (PDF 99.3KB) - This is a detailed guide for installing overlay strip flooring on a range of substrates. It covers all the main points you need to need to know for board selection, storage and site preparation, installation and finishing.
- Guide for installing Tasmanian Oak strip flooring as an overlay (PDF 623.1KB) - This is a concise guide for installing overlay strip flooring on a range of substrates. It covers all the main points you need to know for board selection, storage and site preparation, installation and finishing.
- Guide for installing Tasmanian Oak strip flooring on joists (PDF 623.5KB) - This is a concise guide for installing conventional strip flooring on joists. It covers all the main points you need to know for board selection, storage and site preparation, installation and finishing.
Research into sustainability is a developing area, and the Centre for Sustainable Architecture with Wood is constantly investigating new processes and issues in the use of timber in construction.
- Forest store carbon (PDF 374.1KB) - Forestry is the only Australian industry sector that stores more greenhouse gases than it releases. In 2001, Australia's plantations and managed forests stored a net 22.7 million tonnes of carbon dioxide. This is more than half of the carbon dioxide (42.5mt) emitted by all the passenger cars in Australia in that year.
- Forest products are part of your life (PDF 177.9KB) - Forest products are part of the every day life of all Australians. In 2001-02, Australia's native and plantation forests supplied more than 1 cubic metre of wood for every person in Australia, a total of about 24 million cubic metres.
- Timber products use less energy (PDF 177.9KB) - Timber is the perfect, sustainable building material. It is strong, natural, renewable and has the lowest embodied energy of any major building material. It also stores atmospheric carbon. Buildings constructed from timber take less energy to make than similar brick, concrete or steel buildings.