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2. WCAG 2.0 Mandatory Guidelines (Level A)

Guideline 1.1: Text Alternatives: Provide text alternatives for any non-text content

1.1.1 Non-text Content (Level A)

  • Do all images, form image buttons, and image map hot spots have appropriate, equivalents?
  • Are equivalent alternatives to complex images are provided in context or on a separate (linked and/or referenced via longdesc) page?
  • Do form buttons have a descriptive value?
  • Do form inputs have associated text labels or, if labels cannot be used, a descriptive title attribute?
  • Is embedded multimedia identified via accessible text?
  • Are frames are appropriately titled?

Guideline 1.2: Time-based Media: Provide alternatives for time-based media

NOTE: If the audio or video is designated as an alternative to web content (e.g., an audio or sign language version of a web page, for example), then the web content itself serves as the alternative.

1.2.1 Prerecorded Audio-only and Video-only (Level A)

  • Is a descriptive text transcript (including all relevant visual and auditory clues and indicators) provided for non-live, web-based audio (audio podcasts, MP3 files, etc.)?
  • Is a text or audio description is provided for non-live, web-based video-only (e.g., video that has no audio track)?

1.2.2 Captions (Prerecorded) (Level A)

  • Are synchronized captions are provided for non-live, web-based video (YouTube videos, etc.)?

1.2.3 Audio Description or Media Alternative (Prerecorded) (Level A)

Guideline 1.3: Adaptable: Create content that can be presented in different ways (for example simpler layout) without losing information or structure

1.3.1 Info and Relationships (Level A)

  • Is Semantic markup is used to designate headings (<h1>), lists (<ul>, <ol>, and <dl>), emphasised or special text (<strong>, <code>, <abbr>, <blockquote>, for example), etc? Make sure semantic markup is used appropriately.
  • Are tables are used for tabular data only, not layout? Where necessary, data cells are associated with their headers. Data table captions and summaries are used where appropriate.
  • Are text labels are associated with form input elements? Related form elements are grouped with fieldset/legend.

1.3.2 Meaningful Sequence (Level A)

1.3.3 Sensory Characteristics (Level A)

  • Make sure instructions do not rely upon shape, size, or visual location (e.g., "Click the square icon to continue" or "Instructions are in the right-hand column").
  • Make sure instructions do not rely upon sound (e.g. "A beeping sound indicates you may continue.").

Guideline 1.4: Distinguishable: Make it easier for users to see and hear content including separating foreground from background

1.4.1 Use of Color (Level A)

  • Is colour is not used as the sole method of conveying content or distinguishing visual elements?
  • Is colour alone is not used to distinguish links from surrounding text unless the luminance contrast between the link and the surrounding text is at least 3:1 and an additional differentiation (e.g., it becomes underlined) is provided when the link is hovered over or receives focus?

1.4.2 Audio Control (Level A)

  • Is a mechanism is provided to stop, pause, mute, or adjust volume for audio that automatically plays on a page for more than 3 seconds?

Guideline 2.1: Keyboard Accessible: Make all functionality available from a keyboard

2.1.1 Keyboard (Level A)

  • Is all page functionality available using the keyboard, unless the functionality cannot be accomplished in any known way using a keyboard (e.g., free hand drawing)?
  • Page-specified shortcut keys and accesskeys (accesskey should typically be avoided) do not conflict with existing browser and screen reader shortcuts.

2.1.2 No Keyboard Trap (Level A)

  • Make sure keyboard focus is never locked or trapped at one particular page element. The user can navigate to and from all navigable page elements using only a keyboard.

Guideline 2.2: Enough Time: Provide users enough time to read and use content

2.2.1 Timing Adjustable (Level A)

  • If a page or application has a time limit, the user is given options to turn off, adjust, or extend that time limit. This is not a requirement for real-time events (e.g., an auction), where the time limit is absolutely required, or if the time limit is longer than 20 hours.

2.2.2 Pause, Stop, Hide (Level A)

  • Automatically moving, blinking, or scrolling content that lasts longer than 3 seconds can be paused, stopped, or hidden by the user. Moving, blinking, or scrolling can be used to draw attention to or highlight content as long as it lasts less than 3 seconds.
  • Automatically updating content (e.g., automatically redirecting or refreshing a page, a news ticker, AJAX updated field, a notification alert, etc.) can be paused, stopped, or hidden by the user or the user can manually control the timing of the updates.

Guideline 2.3: Seizures: Do not design content in a way that is known to cause seizures

2.3.1 Three Flashes or Below Threshold (Level A)

Guideline 2.4: Navigable: Provide ways to help users navigate, find content, and determine where they are

2.4.1 Bypass Blocks (Level A)

  • A link is provided to skip navigation and other page elements that are repeated across web pages.
  • If a page has a proper heading structure, this may be considered a sufficient technique instead of a "Skip to main content" link. Note that navigating by headings is not yet supported in all browsers.
  • If a page uses frames and the frames are appropriately titled, this is a sufficient technique for bypassing individual frames.

2.4.2 Page Titled (Level A)

  • The web page has a descriptive and informative page title.

2.4.3 Focus Order (Level A)

  • The navigation order of links, form elements, etc. is logical and intuitive.

2.4.4 Link Purpose (In Context) (Level A)

  • The purpose of each link (or form image button or image map hotspot) can be determined from the link text alone, or from the link text and it's context (e.g., surrounding paragraph, list item, table cell, or table headers).
  • Links (or form image buttons) with the same text that go to different locations are readily distinguishable.

Guideline 3.1: Readable: Make text content readable and understandable

3.1.1 Language of Page (Level A)

  • The language of the page is identified using the HTML lang attribute (<html lang="en">, for example).

Guideline 3.2: Predictable: Make Web pages appear and operate in predictable ways

3.2.1 On Focus (Level A)

  • When a page element receives focus, it does not result in a substantial change to the page, the spawning of a pop-up window, an additional change of keyboard focus, or any other change that could confuse or disorient the user.

3.2.2 On Input (Level A)

  • When a user inputs information or interacts with a control, it does not result in a substantial change to the page, the spawning of a pop-up window, an additional change of keyboard focus, or any other change that could confuse or disorient the user unless the user is informed of the change ahead of time.

Guideline 3.3: Input Assistance: Help users avoid and correct mistakes

3.3.1 Error Identification (Level A)

  • Required form elements or form elements that require a specific format, value, or length provide this information within the element's label (or if a label is not provided, within the element's title attribute).
  • If utilized, form validation cues and errors (client-side or server-side) alert users to errors in an efficient, intuitive, and accessible manner. The error is clearly identified, quick access to the problematic element is provided, and user is allowed to easily fix the error and resubmit the form.

3.3.2 Labels or Instructions (Level A)

  • Sufficient labels, cues, and instructions for required interactive elements are provided via instructions, examples, properly positioned form labels, and/or fieldsets/legends.

Guideline 4.1: Compatible: Maximize compatibility with current and future user agents, including assistive technologies

4.1.1 Parsing (Level A)

4.1.2 Name, Role, Value (Level A)

  • Markup is used in a way that facilitates accessibility. This includes following the HTML/XHTML specifications and using forms, form labels, frame titles, etc. appropriately.