Profiles

Sonam Thakchoe

UTAS Home Dr Sonam Thakchoe

Sonam Thakchoe

Senior Lecturer, Philosophy

Room 362 , Humanities Building

+61 3 6226 1776 (phone)

+61 3 6226 7847 (fax)

Sonam.Thakchoe@utas.edu.au

Dr. Sonam Thakchoe is a Senior Philosophy Lecturer at University of Tasmania. He teaches Asian philosophy, coordinates and directs Tasmanian Buddhist Studies in India Exchange Program. He received PhD in philosophy from the University of Tasmanian in 2003, Masters in Indo-Tibetan philosophy from Central University of Tibetan Studies in July 1997. Since his appointment he has made substantial contributions to the field of Indo-Tibetan philosophical research with six books and dozens of referred articles, published in some of the leading academic publishers - Oxford University Press, Wisdom Publications, Journal of Philosophy East & West, Journal of Indian philosophy, the Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy. Sonam’s initiatives in research and teaching activities have brought very significant and positive changes in research, teaching and learning culture at the UTAS. His research specialisation is in Indo-Tibetan Buddhist philosophy, with a particular focus on the Buddhist metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, philosophy of mind, and phenomenology of mindfulness The Asian philosophy program is now an integral part of the Philosophy’s teaching curriculum and its research methods.

Sonam’s traditional Indo-Tibetan philosophy qualifications, native fluency in the languages necessary for teaching and research in Asian philosophy as well as a deep immersion into Western philosophy furnish him with a unique ability to bring his research projects and teaching practice into productive dialogue with the West, and so bring important trans-cultural communication and interpretation skills to research methodology and teaching practice at UTAS.

Biography

Since his appointment 2003, Sonam has held positions as Senior Lecturer (2014 onwards) and Lecturer (various 1998-2005) in Philosophy, University of Tasmania. Sonam received his PhD (2002) from the University of Tasmania as well as the Acharya (MA equivalent) from the Central University of Tibetan Studies. His traditional Tibetan research experience, and native fluency in the languages are essential to the demand of his research projects and teaching activities. He is also well established in Western philosophy and have the capability to bring this project into dialogue with the West and so bring important trans-cultural communication and interpretation skills to research projects. He is an experienced and productive scholar in Indo-Tibetan Buddhist philosophy with a good track record of research, including the preparation of scholarly translations, philosophical study of Indo-Tibetan Buddhist philosophy, cross-cultural philosophy that brings together Indian, Tibetan and Western philosophies, and research in the Indian epistemology, ethics and logic. He has good experience on long-term scholarly projects, in team research, and on projects that involve collaboration with Western colleagues on translation and interpretation.  He is also an experienced postgraduate research supervisor with good completion record. He brings research management skills, philological skills, philosophical skills and linguistic skills negotiating and crossing the boundaries between Indo-Tibetan and Western philosophical traditions. He is one of very few Australasian scholars, and indeed, the only Tibetan philosopher, with experience in the study of Indo-Tibetan philosophy and in collaboration with Western colleagues.

Sonam is also involved with wide range of ecumenical, and socially engaging services with the aims of strengthening the Asian philosophy programs, and fostering a wider appreciation of Asian thought within the Tasmanian community through the school visits, public talks, and leading group discussion/study forums. Sonam is also passionate about forging a closer and more rigorous research in bringing together the fruitful impacts of mindfulness-cultivation, phenomenology and philosophy.

Career summary

Qualifications

(1)DegreeA Doctoral Degree in Philosophy (09 Aug 2003)
Candidature:Nov 1999 to Aug 2002
Research Area:Indo-Tibetan Buddhist Philosophy
Thesis Title:“A comparative analysis of the two Tibetan Prasangika Madhyamaka accounts of the two truths”
Supervisors:Prof. Jeff Malpas (primary), Prof. Jay. L. Garfield (associate)
Institution:  The University of Tasmania,

(2)Degree:  Master of Arts in Indo-Tibetan Buddhist Philosophy and Hermeneutics
Candidature:  July 1995 – July 1997
Research Area:  Causality in Indo-Tibetan Madhyamaka philosophy
Thesis Title:  The Problem of karma and rebirth
Supervisors:The Ven. Prof. Geshe Yeshi Thabkhey, Prof. Sempa Dorjee
Course works:Double majors in Indian and Tibetan Madhyamaka philosophy
Institution:  Central University of Tibetan Studies Sarnath, Varanasi, INDIA
Graduation:  July 1997 with a Gold medal award

(3) Degree:  Bachelor of Arts in Indian Buddhist philosophy
Bachelor of Arts in Tibetan Buddhist philosophy
Bachelor of Arts in Classical Sanskrit Language
Bachelor of Arts in Tibetan Language and Literature
Bachelor of Arts in the Indo-Tibetan Philosophical and Religious History
Candidature:July 1992 – July 1995
Institution:Central University Tibetan Studies
Sarnath, Varanasi, INDIA
Completion:July 1995, graduated with Gold medal award

(4) Degree:  Four-year (pre-tertiary and post-schooling) intensive training on Indo-Tibetan Buddhist Philosophy, Hermeneutics, Sanskrit, Tibetan language and literature and Indo-Tibetan Philosophical and Religious History.
Candidature:  July 1988 – July 1992

Institution:  Central University Tibetan Studies
Sarnath, Varanasi, INDIA
Completion:  July 1992 with the Bronze Medal award

Languages (other than English)

Fluent: Tibetan, English

Working knowledge: Sanskrit, Pali and Hindi

Memberships

Committee associations

  • International Association of Buddhist Studies (IABS)
  • Australasian Association of Buddhist Studies (AABS)
  • Australasian Society for Asian and Comparative Philosophy (ASACP)

Other

Sonam is a member of the Cowherds: an international research team consisting academics from University of Tasmania, University of Melbourne, University of Oakland, University of Lausanne (Switzerland), Smith College (USA), Central Michigan University (USA), Central University of Tibetan Studies (India), Oxford University (UK), and Australian National University.

Administrative expertise

Sonam is the key person at UTAS responsible for teaching and administrative activities in the Asian philosophy program. He coordinates and teaches all the units on the Asian Philosophy Minor. He is also the coordinator of the Tasmanian Buddhist Studies in India Exchange Program, which is a unique tripartite exchange program between the University of Tasmania (UTAS), Central University of Tibetan Studies (Varanasi, India), Deakin University, and the Five Colleges Consortium of Buddhist Studies (USA). He coordinates and delivers units on Asian philosophy that are innovative, theoretically informed, and have well-prepared and rigorous philosophical contents: they provide students with traditional as well as up-to-date knowledge of the Indian, Chinese and Tibetan philosophical, historical, and cultural practices. Currently he rotates five units on Asian philosophy and co-teaches one first-year philosophy unit.

Teaching

Buddhist philosophy: Madhyamaka, Yogacara, Sautrantika, Vaibhasika, Indo-Tibetan Metaphysics, Epistemology, Ethics, Philosophy of Mind, Chinese Philosophy: Philosophical Taoism, Philosophical Zen, Philosophical Confucianism

Teaching expertise

Sonam is currently involved in independently or collaborating with his colleagues in designing, teaching and coordinating the following units with a set of well-defined rationales and learning outcomes, which are coherently aligned to generic graduate attributes. He delivers these units with high quality teaching and learning materials to support and engage students in learning. His student-centered pedagogical approach emphasizes the need for incorporating learning and teaching strategies and technologies which engage, and support students in productive learning.

  • HPH105 Introductory Philosophy: Knowledge and Reality
  • HPH104 Introductory Philosophy: Moral & Political Philosophy
  • HPA2/376 Indo-Tibetan philosophy, culture & hermeneutic
  • HPA234 Zen & Tao: East Asian Philosophy
  • HPA319 Buddhist Philosophy
  • HPH302 Applied Philosophy

Research Appointments

Invited speaker, Oxford University (2014)

View more on Dr Sonam Thakchoe in WARP

Expertise

The contributions Sonam has made to UTAS are also demonstrably significant and ground-breaking, manifested through the evidence of excellence, scholarship, and the significance of his performance in all three key academic activities. His initiatives in research and teaching activities at UTAS have brought significant changes in research, teaching and learning practice. His contribution to HDR supervision at UTAS has also been substantial. A number of promising research students have enrolled at UTAS to work under his supervision, mainly specialising in Asian philosophical projects. He has had significant success in changing the research culture of the postgraduate community of Philosophy at UTAS into a more cross-cultural, interdisciplinary and inclusive environment.

He is an experienced and productive research scholar in Indo-Tibetan Buddhist philosophy with a good record of accomplishment in research that includes preparation of scholarly translations, historical and philosophical study of Indo-Tibetan Buddhist texts, cross-cultural philosophy and analyses that bring together Indian, Tibetan and Western philosophies and religions. Since his appointment at UTAS in 2003, he has produced 36 publications with six books, many book chapters, dozens of articles and encyclopaedia entries, published in some of the leading academic presses and journals: Oxford University Press, Wisdom Publications, Journal of Philosophy East-WestJournal of Indian philosophy, and the Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy.

He has attracted substantial external funding ($437,777) to support his research initiatives and teaching projects. He is productive both as an independent researcher and as a member of collaborative teams of international scholars. His first two books received excellent reviews and have been cited in other publications, as have my journal articles. My first single-authored book, The Two Truths Debate: Tsongkhapa and Gorampa on the Middle Way (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 2007), was nominated for the Best First Book Prize by the American Academy of Religion, demonstrating its academic impact.

His contributions both as an independent researcher and collaborative researcher indicate, his research projects further intellectual engagement between Indian, Tibetan and Western philosophers centred on some of the most significant and productive philosophical controversies in Indo-Tibetan intellectual circles. His research advances interaction between Western and Indo-Tibetan Buddhist philosophy, bringing to attention texts and arguments otherwise not available to the Western philosophical world, but that are of immediate interest for current debates in global philosophy. His research skills include preparation of scholarly translations, close analysis of Indo-Tibetan philosophical materials, cross-cultural philosophy that brings together Indian, Tibetan and Western philosophy, and research in Indian epistemology, ethics, Buddhist logic and philosophy of mind.

He works closely with Professor Powers (Deakin University) and Professor Garfield (Smith College, Harvard Divinity School) on all aspects of the research, including translation, critical editing, philosophical analysis and writing the papers and books that will emerge from this research. He takes particular responsibility for comparing editions of Tibetan texts, developing an account of intertextual links, assessing arguments with reference to Tibetan Buddhist philosophical traditions and applying Tibetan hermeneutical techniques to their interpretation.

Sonam has a wide range of research interests and expertise in Indian and Tibetan philosophies:

  • Indian philosophy, history and hermeneutics
  • Tibetan philosophy, history and hermeneutics
  • Philosophical study of Indo-Tibetan Buddhist materials
  • Buddhist philosophy & phenomenology of mindfulness
  • Cross-cultural philosophy that brings together Indian, Tibetan and Western philosophy
  • Research in Indo-Tibetan epistemology, ethics, logic, and philosophy of mind

Sonam’s research projects aim to further intellectual engagement between Indian, Tibetan and Western philosophers centred on some of the most significant and productive philosophical controversies in Indo-Tibetan intellectual circles. His research advances the interaction of Western and Indo-Tibetan Buddhist philosophy, bringing to attention texts and arguments otherwise not available to the Western philosophical world which demonstrates the fruitfulness of a collaborative approach to cross-cultural scholarship. The Indo-Tibetan philosophical literatures his research brings to light are immediately relevant to current debates in Western philosophy and make substantial contributions to contemporary discussions while enriching interaction between the two traditions.

His research interests and skills include preparation of scholarly translations, philosophical study of Indo-Tibetan philosophical materials, cross-cultural philosophy that brings together Indian, Tibetan and Western philosophy, and research in Indian epistemology, ethics, Buddhist logic, and philosophy of mind.

Collaboration

Sonam’s contributions both as an independent researcher and collaborative researcher is substantial. As a collaborative chief research, he works closely with Professor Powers and Professor Garfield on all aspects of the research, including translation, critical editing, philosophical analysis and writing the papers and books that will emerge from this research. He takes particular responsibility for comparing editions of Tibetan texts, developing an account of intertextual links, assessing arguments with reference to Tibetan Buddhist philosophical traditions and applying Tibetan hermeneutical techniques to their interpretation

Since 2014 he has had the good fortune to collaborate with an international research team—the Cowherds—comprised of leading philosophers and scholars from around the world at various institutions, including University of Melbourne (Australia), University of Auckland (New Zealand, University of Lausanne (Switzerland), Smith College (USA), Central Michigan University (USA), Central University of Tibetan Studies (India), Durham University (UK), Australian National University and University of Tasmania (Australia). He co-authored two book polygraphs with the Cowherds :

  • Moonshadows: Conventional Truths (Oxford: Oxford University Press 2011) and
  • Moonpaths: Ethics and Emptiness (Oxford: Oxford University, 2015).

The first book project was funded by the University of Lausanne. This first publication has been positively reviewed in leading journals and is widely cited. The Society for the Study of Indo-Tibetan Buddhist Philosophy dedicated an entire panel of papers about the essays in our book or inspired by our book at the December meeting of the Society for the Study of Indian and Tibetan Buddhist Philosophy at the American Philosophical Association in Atlanta, 2012. The success of their first book project encouraged Central Michigan University to fund the Cowherds’ second collaborative project, which was the result of three years of productive collaborative work. This publication explores the status and structure of ethics in Madhyamaka Buddhist thought and built on the epistemological and ontological focus of the first volume. Both of these books are often used around the world as resource materials for graduate and postgraduate students at various universities.

His first opportunity to engage with an ARC-funded research project arose in 2014 when Professor John Powers and Professor Jay L. Garfield extended Sonam the honour of joining their august team to work on the four-year ARC Discovery grant (DP110102042 $540,000, entitled: “Negotiating Modernity: Buddhism in Tibet and China”), based at the ANU. This project involved a team of academics from around the world who specialise in Tibetan, Chinese and Sanskrit literature: Sonam Thakchoe (University of Tasmania), John Powers (ANU), Jay L. Garfield (Smith College), Douglas Duckworth (Temple University), and David Eckel (Boston University), Yeshi Thabkhas (Central University of Higher Tibetan Studies). The team produced the first study to translate and analyse an Indic work (Dignāga’s Investigation of the Percept ([Ālambana-parīkṣā]) and its entire commentarial history in India and Tibet, along with the most influential contributions of Chinese commentators from the 6th–20th centuries. The study included an extensive philosophical analysis that placed the text in cross-cultural philosophical perspective, along with critical editions and translations of the root text and its Indian and Tibetan commentaries As a native Tibetan speaker with expertise in both Buddhist and Western thought, he played a key role that bridged the perspectives of members of our diverse team. According to Professor Powers, “[Sonam’s] native language skills and philosophical acumen have been invaluable to our work of translating and interpreting Tibetan and Indian texts…Sonam’s work has been outstanding since he joined the team.” Professor Garfield concurs when he writes: “Dr Thakchöe is a vital figure on the Tibetan subgroup. His grasp both of the commentarial literature and of the doxographic and philosophical framework within which this work is situated is extraordinary, and his linguistic and translational insights are impeccable. He solves many of the most difficult intertextual, interpretative and translational problems we face, and it is hard to imagine this project without him.  I should point out that this team comprises many of the leading figures in scholarship in this area. Participation in this project already demonstrates a high standing in this field; and Dr Thakchöe is one of the most valued members of this team.” Our main output was a polygraph,  Dignāga’s Investigation of The Percept (Ālambana-Parīkṣā) and Its Philosophical Legacy in India And Tibet (Oxford University Press 2016).

The book was well received. “[A]n overall outstanding contribution to the study of Dignāga's Yogācāra philosophy and its Tibetan reception in the Dge lugs pa school. The present monograph will be a starting point for any future study of the Tibetan reception of the Investigation of the Percept.” (Reading Religion) “This work beautifully exemplifies how collaborative work can result in a product of higher quality than any of the scholars might have produced individually. The careful philosophical analysis of Dignāga’s Ālambanaparīkṣā and its commentaries shows that there were several ways of interpreting Dignāga's laconic presentation. Because of its thoroughness, this study is sure to be a durable standard work to be consulted for generations to come.” (Richard P. Hayes, University of New Mexico)

In 2016 Sonam teamed up as a Chief Investigator with Professor Powers (CI) and Professor Garfield (PI); submitted an ARC-Discovery application (ID: DP160100947; “A Buddhist Debate and Contemporary Relevance”, $414,000), which was successful. They invited new members with expertise in this field and decided to refer to the collective as “the Yakherds” because the material they analysed included some of the most influential Tibetan responses to the sorts of philosophical issues studied in the Cowherds volumes. The new Yakherds are: Prof José Cabezón, current President of the American Academy of Religion and Dalai Lama Chair at University of California, Santa Barbara; Prof Tashi Tsering, Dean of Sakya Studies at CIHTS; Jed Forman (PhD student, University of California, Berkeley); and Ryan Conlon (PhD student, Heidelberg University).

They studied central debates in Tibetan Buddhist philosophy concerning truth, realism and epistemic justification, which were initiated by Taktsang Lotsāwa’s critiques of Tsongkhapa’s Madhyamaka, in which he charged that the latter’s interpretation  suffers from “eighteen great burdens of contradiction”. Their work explores the implications of this debate for subsequent Tibetan thought and for contemporary Western analytic philosophy. The main output was two research polygraphs that begin with precursors of the Tibetan debates in India in the first volume. They then move to early Tibetan work that picks up on and extends the Indic material. The second volume contains translations of the major Tibetan treatises in this debate and will be published by Oxford University Press in 2021:

  • Knowing Illusion: Bringing a Tibetan Debate into Contemporary Discourse. Vol. I: Critical Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press (2020)
  • Knowing Illusion: Bringing a Tibetan Debate into Contemporary Discourse. Vol. II: Translation. Oxford: Oxford University Press (2020).

These two polygraphs feature scholarly analyses of previously unstudied texts and demonstrate the fruitfulness of a traditional method of collaborative cross-cultural philosophy today in which Tibetan and Western scholars work together to develop joint analyses. They also demonstrate that the metaphysical and epistemological ideas and arguments developed in these debates can contribute to Western philosophy.

Awards

Sonam has been involved in four international collaborative research projects all of which received external funding:

  • In 2016 Sonam teamed up the Yakherds research team as a Chief Investigator with Professor Powers (CI, Deakin University) and Professor Garfield (PI, Smith College, Harvard Divinity School) who were successfully awarded an ARC-Discovery for the application (ID: DP160100947; “A Buddhist Debate and Contemporary Relevance”, $414,000). They studied central debates in Tibetan Buddhist philosophy concerning truth, realism and epistemic justification, which were initiated by Taktsang Lotsāwa’s critiques of Tsongkhapa’s Madhyamaka, in which he charged that the latter’s interpretation  suffers from “eighteen great burdens of contradiction”. The work explores the implications of this debate for subsequent Tibetan thought and for contemporary Western analytic philosophy. The main output was two research polygraphs that begin with precursors of the Tibetan debates in India. The first volume contains our critical studies which from Oxford University Press (2021) as Knowing Illusion: Bringing a Tibetan Debate into Contemporary Discourse: Vol. I: Studies.  The second volume contains translations of the major Tibetan treatises in this debate and is published by Oxford University Press (2021) as Knowing Illusion: Bringing a Tibetan Debate into Contemporary Discourse. Vol. II: Translation. These two polygraphs feature scholarly analyses of previously unstudied texts and demonstrate the fruitfulness of a traditional method of collaborative cross-cultural philosophy today in which Tibetan and Western scholars work together to develop joint analyses. They also demonstrate that the metaphysical and epistemological ideas and arguments developed in these debates can contribute to Western philosophy.
  • In 2016 he teamed up with the Yakherds research team which was awarded an ARC Discovery funded project (entitled: Negotiating Modernity: Buddhism between Tibet and China DP110102042) for which John Powers and Jay L. Garfield were Chief Investigators. The project is successfully brought to its completion (April 2015) with a monograph entitled Dignāga’s Investigation of The Percept (Ālambana-Parīkṣā) And Its Philosophical Legacy In India And Tibet which was reviewed and published by the Oxford University Press (2015)
  • In 2016 Sonam and his team of researchers (with Prof. Jay L. Garfield as the Principle Investigator) were awarded a three-year funding (US $766,000) from the Ministry of Education of Singapore to work on research project entitled: “Bringing a Classical Tibetan Debate into Conversation with Contemporary Philosophy.”
  • In 2013 Sonam collaborated international collaborative research team the “Cowherds” on their second project which the Central University of Michigan funded the Cowherds’ which resulted a terrific cross-cultural volume in Buddhist philosophy Moonpaths: Ethics in the Context of Conventional Truthpublished by Oxford University Press (2015.
  • In 2011 Sonam collaborated with the Cowherds on their first collaborative project which was funded the University of Lausanne (Switzerland) which resulted in the publication of groundbreaking, Moonshadows: Conventional Truth in Buddhist Philosophy by Oxford University Press (2012).

Current projects

Independent Project

Currently he is working on a book monograph “Epistemological Non-foundationalism of Candrakīrti”. Candrakīrti is variously described as a global error theorist, epistemic eliminative and epistemological coherentist. In this book, he proposes an alternative nonfoundationalist epistemology for Candrakīritian Mādhyamaka. He demonstrates how Candrakīrtian philosophical works provide sufficient evidence to defend a unique, nonfoundationalist epistemology which, he argues, complements his core non-foundationalist ontology.

To summarise his methodology: he will study and translate texts on Candrakīrtian epistemology in the Indo-Tibetan tradition. He will prepare a critical analysis of these texts, and of the epistemological accounts they articulate. He will then explore the connections between Candrakīrtian epistemological framework and Western and contemporary epistemological theories, seeking common ground as well as the foundations of differences. This will in turn allow him to abstract a more general account of the epistemic domain and to connect that account to his other research on epistemology. Finally, he will use these ideas to develop an argument to support distinctive epistemological framework for Candrakīrtian account.

Collaborative Projects:

The Sources of Normativity in Cross-cultural Perspective

Sonam will team up with the group of international researchers to prepare and submit a joint ARC-application (DP220100204)entitled: “the Sources of Normativity in Cross-cultural Perspective.” The research team will include: Sonam Thakchoe (UTAS, CI), John Powers (CI, Deakin University), Jay Garfield (Harvard University/Smith College), Douglas Duckwrorth (Temple University), Emily McRae (University of New Mexico), Tashi Tsering (Central University of Tibetan Studies), Yeshes Thabkhas (Central University of Tibetan Studies), Jonathon Gold (Princeton University), Constance Kassor (Lawrence University), Thomas Doctor (Kathmandu University), and Thomas Wartenberg (Mount Holyoke College). This is a world class team, each of whose members has an excellent research track record, many of whom have experience working on large collaborative projects, whose skills complement one another’s well. The Buddhism specialists have proven track records bringing Buddhist and Western philosophy into dialogue.

This project will investigate one of the most pressing contemporary concerns in Australia and around the world: how do we constitute, adjudicate and propagate the norms that govern our behaviour? The research team will explore approaches to ethics that hold out hope for countering the skepticism and cynicism that characterise our current global moment of divisive distrust of others and skepticism regarding any possibility of shared moral foundations. They are engaging in cross-cultural studies to better understand specific methods to foster understanding across social divides and to seek new sources for dealing with social polarisation deriving from irreconcilable and antagonistic ideologies.

To summarise their methodology: their multidisciplinary team will study and translate texts on normativity and ethics in the Indo-Tibetan tradition. They will prepare a critical analysis of these texts, and of the accounts they articulate. They will then explore the connections between this framework and Western ethics and theories of normativity, seeking common ground as well as the foundations of differences. This will in turn allow them to abstract a more general account of the normative domain and to connect that account to their previous research on epistemology. Finally, they will use these ideas to develop principles that might guide values education in primary and secondary schools.

A Comprehensive Commentary on Candrakīrti’s ‘Introduction to the Middle Way

Finally, Sonam will team up with Jay L. Garfield (Smith College, Harvard Divinity School), Jan Westerhoff (Oxford University) and Khenpo Tashi Tsering (Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies) to prepare and submit a new project proposal “A Comprehensive Commentary on Candrakīrti’s ‘Introduction to the Middle Way’ (Madhyamakāvatāra) to Wisdom Publications. Candrakīrti’s (7th century CE) ‘Introduction to the Middle Way’ (Madhyamakāvatāra) is one of the most central works of Buddhist philosophy for at least two reasons. First, it provides a philosophically precise introduction to Madhyamaka (the philosophy of the middle way). Second, Candrakīrti’s text occupies a very prominent role within the world of Madhyamaka literature.We will start working on this book proposal. The aim of their project is not principally to offer a new translation of Candrakīrti’s text, but instead to provide a comprehensive meta-commentary on and philosophical discussion of Candrakīrti’s entire work. It will be distinctive in the recent Candrakīrti literature.

This is a world class team, each of whose members has an excellent research track record, many of whom have experience working together on large collaborative projects, whose skills complement one another’s well. The Buddhism specialists have proven track records bringing Buddhist and Western philosophy into dialogue.

Fields of Research

  • Studies in eastern religious traditions (500406)
  • Philosophy of religion (500316)

Research Objectives

  • Religious rituals and traditions (excl. structures) (130503)
  • Religion and society (130501)
  • Religion (130599)

Publications

Sonam’s research profile demonstrates a capacity to produce publications—sole authored monographs, polygraphs produced by international research teams and book chapter—that are published by leading academic presses, mainly Oxford University Press. These sorts of outputs that are most highly regarded in Philosophy, along with articles in high quality journals. His monographs (2007) and (2021, forthcoming) and the research articles he has published so far are evidence of his ability to conduct independent research. The five co-authored books are products of international collaboration with a team of some of best-known Buddhist scholars and Buddhist philosophers from around the world at various institutions demonstrate my ability to work as a member of a diverse team and produce collaborative research at the highest level. His first book (2007) was nominated for the Best First Book Prize by the American Academy of Religion, demonstrating its mainstream impact.

He has collaborated with the Internationally renowned research team “The Cowherds”, which includes some of the most prominent scholars from around the world in Buddhist and Western philosophy; these have produced genuinely cross-cultural and interdisciplinary research that has received outstanding reviews in peer-reviewed publications. He co-authored two books with the Cowherds: (OUP 2011) & (OUP 2015) A review in Philosophy East and West (62.3 [2012]: 428-429) described the book as “Collaboratively written by some of the world’s foremost experts in Indo-Tibetan Buddhist philosophy.” He also productively collaborated closely with ARC-funded research teams as a CI, firstly in DP110102042 $540,000) with John Powers (ANU), Jay Garfield (Smith College), and other researchers based in the US, India and Australia. This team produced a comprehensive study of Dignāga’s seminal epistemological work Investigation of the Percept and its entire commentarial trajectory in India and Tibet (published by OUP). His native language skills, philosophical acumen and grasp both of the commentarial literature and of the doxographic and philosophical framework within which this work is situated helped in resolving and contextualising some of the most difficult intertextual, interpretative and translational problems we faced in analysing some of the nuanced readings of Dignāga’s text by its interpreters.

The second ARC-funded project (DP160100947 $414,000) in which he collaborated with Prof Powers and Prof Garfield along with several new members produced two books (OUP 2021). These volumes analyse one of the most influential debates in Indian and Tibetan Buddhism concerning truth, realism and epistemic justification; this involved some of Tibet’s greatest minds for centuries and continues to resonate today. The books explore the implications of this debate for subsequent Tibetan thought and for contemporary Western analytic philosophy. His most recent monograph is an in-depth philosophical enquiry into the theories of the two truths in Indian Buddhism (2021, forthcoming). This research is intended to provide a comprehensive introduction to those debates in relation to contemporary discussions on the subject. In his research articles, he explore some of the most controversial topics in Indo-Tibetan Madhyamaka philosophy in a diverse range of topics, including metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, and philosophy of mind. He has published dozens of peer-reviewed articles, many in the A-ranked Journal of Indian Philosophy and Philosophy East and West (both of which are prominent in cross-cultural philosophy), many book chapters, all of which are published by Oxford University Press. His work has made substantial contributions to the field of Indo-Tibetan philosophical studies. His articles are often cited in scholarly works, some are widely downloaded and circulated; many copies have also been requested through UTAS’ e-site.  He also published two significant entries for the influential online Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2011a) and (2011b); these were translated into Chinese, reflecting the impact of my research. He was invited to write two new entries on his specialization for Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy Online (2021), and The Wiley Encyclopedia of Philosophy of Religion (2021).

Total publications

38

Highlighted publications

(3 outputs)
YearTypeCitationAltmetrics
2007BookThakchoe S, 'The Two Truths Debate: Tsongkhapa and Gorampa on the Middle Way', Wisdom Publications, Boston, pp. 272. ISBN 9780861715015 (2007) [Authored Research Book]

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2004Journal ArticleThakchoe S, 'How many truths? Are there two truths or one in the Tibetan Prasangika Madhyamika?', Contemporary Buddhism, 5, (2) pp. 121-141. ISSN 1463-9947 (2004) [Refereed Article]

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2003Journal ArticleThakchoe S, ''The Relationship between the two truths'; a comparative analysis of two Tibetan Accounts', Contemporary Buddhism, 4, (2) pp. 111-126. ISSN 1463-9947 (2003) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1080/1463994032000162947 [eCite] [Details]

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Journal Article

(14 outputs)
YearCitationAltmetrics
2020McLeod K, Thakchoe S, Hunter MA, Vincent K, Baltra-Ulloa AJ, et al., 'Principles for a pedagogy of unlearning', Reflective Practice, 21, (2) pp. 183-197. ISSN 1462-3943 (2020) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1080/14623943.2020.1730782 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 4Web of Science - 3

Co-authors: McLeod K; Hunter MA; Vincent K; Baltra-Ulloa AJ; MacDonald A

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2019Thakchoe S, 'Buddhist philosophy of mind: Nāgārjuna's critique of mind-body dualism from His Rebirth Arguments', Philosophy East and West, 69, (3) pp. 807-827. ISSN 0031-8221 (2019) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1353/pew.2019.0064 [eCite] [Details]

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2019Thakchoe S, Tempone Wiltshire J, 'Madhyamaka philosophy of no-mind: Taktsang Lotsāwa's on Prāsaṅgika, Pramāṇa, Buddhahood and a defense of no-mind thesis', Journal of Indian Philosophy, 47, (3) ISSN 0022-1791 (2019) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1007/s10781-019-09388-z [eCite] [Details]

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2017Thakchoe S, 'Candrakīrti on deflated episodic memory: Response to Endel Tulving's challenge', Australasian Philosophical Review, 1, (4) pp. 432-438. ISSN 2474-0500 (2017) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1080/24740500.2017.1411150 [eCite] [Details]

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2014Thakchoe S, 'Tibetan Reflections on the Value of Truth in Cross-Cultural Philosophy', Confluence: Online Journal of World Philosophies, 1 pp. 186-204. ISSN 2199-0360 (2014) [Non Refereed Article]

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2013Thakchoe Sonam, 'Prāsaṅgika epistemology: A reply to Stag tsang's charge against Tsongkhapa's uses of Pramāṇa in Candrakīrti's philosophy', Journal of Indian Philosophy, 41, (5) pp. 535-561. ISSN 1573-0395 (2013) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1007/s10781-013-9186-3 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 1Web of Science - 1

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2012Thakchoe Sonam, 'Candrakīrti's theory of perception: A case for non-foundationalist epistemology in Madhyamaka', Acta Orientalia Vilnensia, 11, (1) pp. 93-124. ISSN 1648-2662 (2012) [Refereed Article]

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2012Thakchoe Sonam, 'Prasangika's semantic nominalism: reality is linguistic concept', Journal of Indian Philosophy, 40, (4) pp. 427-452. ISSN 0022-1791 (2012) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1007/s10781-012-9160-5 [eCite] [Details]

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2008Thakchoe S, 'Gorampa on the Objects of Negation: Arguments for Negating Conventional Truths', Contemporary Buddhism, 9, (2) pp. 265-280. ISSN 1463-9947 (2008) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1080/14639940802556594 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Web of Science - 2

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2007Thakchoe S, 'Status of Conventional Truth in Tsong khapa's Madhyamika philosophy', Contemporary Buddhism, 8, (1) pp. 31-47. ISSN 1463-9947 (2007) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1080/14639940701295070 [eCite] [Details]

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2007Thakchoe S, 'Philosophy of Vipassana Meditation: Appreciating the Rational Basis of the Insightful Meditation', Journal of Rare Buddhist Texts Research Unit, 43, (1) pp. 63-100. ISSN 1980-9947 (2007) [Non Refereed Article]

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2005Thakchoe S, 'Transcendental knowledge in Tibetan Madhyamika Epistemology', Contemporary Buddhism, 6, (2) pp. 131-152. ISSN 1463-9947 (2005) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1080/14639940500435638 [eCite] [Details]

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2004Thakchoe S, 'How many truths? Are there two truths or one in the Tibetan Prasangika Madhyamika?', Contemporary Buddhism, 5, (2) pp. 121-141. ISSN 1463-9947 (2004) [Refereed Article]

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2003Thakchoe S, ''The Relationship between the two truths'; a comparative analysis of two Tibetan Accounts', Contemporary Buddhism, 4, (2) pp. 111-126. ISSN 1463-9947 (2003) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1080/1463994032000162947 [eCite] [Details]

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Book

(6 outputs)
YearCitationAltmetrics
2022Thakchoe S, 'Knowing Illusion: Bringing a Tibetan Debate into Contemporary Discourse. Volume I: A Philosophical History of the Debate', Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK ISBN 9780197603628 (In Press) [Authored Research Book]

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2022Thakchoe S, 'Knowing Illusion: Bringing a Tibetan Debate into Contemporary Discourse. Volume II: Translations', Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK ISBN 9780197603680 (In Press) [Authored Research Book]

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2016Duckworth D, Eckel MD, Garfield JL, Powers J, Thabkhas Y, et al., 'Dignaga's 'Investigation of the Percept' : a philosophical legacy in India and Tibet', Oxford University Press, United States, pp. 353. ISBN 9780190623708 (2016) [Edited Book]

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2015Thakchoe S, Garfield J, Jenkins S, Priest G, Sideritis M, et al., 'Moonpath: Ethics and Emptiness', Oxford University Press, United Kingdom, pp. 272. ISBN 9780190260507 (2015) [Edited Book]

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2011Dreyfus G, Finnigan B, Garfield JL, Newland G, Priest G, et al., 'Moonshadows: conventional truth in Buddhist philosophy', Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 251. ISBN 978-0-19-975143-3 (2011) [Authored Research Book]

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2007Thakchoe S, 'The Two Truths Debate: Tsongkhapa and Gorampa on the Middle Way', Wisdom Publications, Boston, pp. 272. ISBN 9780861715015 (2007) [Authored Research Book]

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Chapter in Book

(14 outputs)
YearCitationAltmetrics
2018Thakchoe S, 'Svātantrika Madhyamaka metaphysics: Bhāvaviveka's conception of reality', History of Indian Philosophy, Routledge, Purushottama Bilimoria (ed), New York, NY, pp. 343-350. ISBN 9780415309769 (2018) [Research Book Chapter]

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2018Thakchoe S, 'The two truths in Madhyamaka: Jnānagarbha', History of Indian Philosophy, Routledge, Purushottama Bilimoria (ed), New York, NY, pp. 351-359. ISBN 9780415309769 (2018) [Research Book Chapter]

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2016Duckworth D, Eckel MD, Garfield JL, Powers J, Thakchoe S, 'Autocommentary to Investigation of the Percept (Alambana-parik~a-vrtti)', Dignaga's 'Investigation of the Percept' : a philosophical legacy in India and Tibet, Oxford University Press, D Duckworth, MD Eckel, JL Garfield, J Powers, Y Thabkhas, and S Thakchoe (ed), United States, pp. 40-47. ISBN 9780190623708 (2016) [Research Book Chapter]

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2016Duckworth D, Eckel MD, Garfield JL, Powers J, Thakchoe S, 'Subcommentary on Investigation of the Percept ( Alambana-parik~a-μka)', Dignaga's 'Investigation of the Percept' : a philosophical legacy in India and Tibet, Oxford University Press, D Duckworth, MD Eckel, JL Garfield, J Powers, Y Thabkhas, and S Thakchoe (ed), United States, pp. 78-104. ISBN 9780190623708 (2016) [Research Book Chapter]

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2016Duckworth D, Eckel MD, Garfield JL, Powers J, Thakchoe S, 'Beautiful String of Pearls: A commentary on investigation of the Percept (dMigs pa brtag pa'i 'grel pa mu tig 'phreng mdzes)', Dignaga's 'Investigation of the Percept' : a philosophical legacy in India and Tibet, Oxford University Press, D Duckworth, MD Eckel, JL Garfield, J Powers, Y Thabkhas, and S Thakchoe (ed), United States, pp. 131-168. ISBN 9780190623708 (2016) [Research Book Chapter]

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2016Duckworth D, Garfield JL, Powers J, Thakchoe S, 'Ornament for Dignaga's Thought in Investigation of the Percept (dMigs pa brtag pa'i 'grel pa phyogs glang dgongs rgyan)', Dignaga's 'Investigation of the Percept' : a philosophical legacy in India and Tibet, Oxford University Press, D Duckworth, MD Eckel, JL Garfield, J Powers, Y Thabkhas, and S Thakchoe (ed), United States, pp. 112-117. ISBN 9780190623708 (2016) [Research Book Chapter]

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2016Duckworth D, Garfield JL, Powers J, Thakchoe S, 'Summary of the Essence: A Commentary on investigation of the Percept', Dignaga's 'Investigation of the Percept' : a philosophical legacy in India and Tibet, Oxford University Press, D Duckworth, MD Eckel, JL Garfield, J Powers, Y Thabkhas, and S Thakchoe (ed), United States, pp. 175-213. ISBN 9780190623708 (2016) [Research Book Chapter]

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2016Goodman C, Thakchoe S, 'The Many Voices of Buddhist Ethics', Moonpath: Ethics and Emptiness, Oxford University Press, The Cowherds (ed), New York, pp. 7-20. ISBN 9780190260507 (2016) [Research Book Chapter]

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2016Powers J, Thakchoe S, 'Introduction to Summary of the Essence: A commentary on Investigation of the Percept', Dignaga's 'Investigation of the Percept' : a philosophical legacy in India and Tibet, Oxford University Press, D Duckworth, MD Eckel, JL Garfield, J Powers, Y Thabkhas, and S Thakchoe (ed), United States, pp. 169-174. ISBN 9780190623708 (2016) [Research Book Chapter]

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2016Thakchoe S, 'The Prāsaṅgika Ethics of Momentary Disintegration (Vināśa Bhāva): Causally Effective Karmic Moments', Moonpath: Ethics and Emptiness, Oxford University Press, The Cowherds (ed), New York, pp. 159-182. ISBN 9780190260507 (2016) [Research Book Chapter]

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2015Thakchoe S, 'Reification and Nihilism: The Three Nature Theory and Its Implications', Madhyamaka and Yogacara: Allies or Rivals?, Oxford University Press, Garfield JL and Westerhoff, J (ed), United Kingdom, pp. 72-110. ISBN 9780190231293 (2015) [Research Book Chapter]

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2011Garfield JL, Thakchoe S, 'Identifying the Object of Negation and the Status of Conventional Truth: Why the dGag Bya Matters So Much to Tibetan Madhyamikas', Moonshadows: conventional truth in Buddhist philosophy, Oxford University Press, The Cowherds (ed), New York, pp. 73-87. ISBN 978-0-19-975143-3 (2011) [Research Book Chapter]

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2011Thakchoe S, 'Prāsaṅgika Epistemology in Context', Moonshadows: conventional truth in Buddhist philosophy, Oxford University Press, The Cowherds (ed), New York, pp. 39-55. ISBN 978-0-19-975143-3 (2011) [Research Book Chapter]

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2002Thakchoe S, 'Vices and Virtues: A Buddhist Perspective', Vices and Virtues, Pyrrho Press, I Sawford (ed), Hobart, pp. 77-102. ISBN 1 86295 038 5 (2002) [Other Book Chapter]

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Entry

(3 outputs)
YearCitationAltmetrics
2021Thakchoe S, 'Two Truths in Buddhism', The Encyclopedia of Philosophy of Religion, S Goetz and C Taliaferro (ed), USA (2021) [Entry]

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2011Thakchoe S, 'The Theory of Two Truths in Tibet', Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, Edward N. Zalta (ed), Stanford, Winter 2011, pp. 1-25 (2011) [Entry]

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2011Thakchoe S, 'The Theory of Two Truths in India', Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, Edward N. Zalta (ed), Stanford, Winter 2011, pp. 1-45 (2011) [Entry]

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Other Public Output

(1 outputs)
YearCitationAltmetrics
2010Thakchoe S, 'The Place of Ethics in Buddhism', ABC Religion and Ethics - Opinion, ABC, Sydney, 0827, 2010 (2010) [Newspaper Article]

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Grants & Funding

Sonam has been involved in five international collaborative research projects all of which received external substantial funding of which some of which are recorded ($437,777) in Funding Summary while others are not.

  • In 2016 Sonam teamed up with Professor Powers (CI, Deakin University) and Professor Garfield (PI, Smith College, Harvard Divinity School) as a Chief Investigator who were successfully awarded an ARC-Discovery funding of $414,000) for their application (ID: DP160100947; “A Buddhist Debate and Contemporary Relevance.” They studied central debates in Tibetan Buddhist philosophy concerning truth, realism and epistemic justification, which were initiated by Taktsang Lotsāwa’s critiques of Tsongkhapa’s Madhyamaka, in which he charged that the latter’s interpretation  suffers from “eighteen great burdens of contradiction”. They work explore the implications of this debate for subsequent Tibetan thought and for contemporary Western analytic philosophy. The main output was two research polygraphs that begin with precursors of the Tibetan debates in India. They then move to early Tibetan work that picks up on and extends the Indic material. The second volume contains translations of the major Tibetan treatises in this debate and will be published by Oxford University Press in 2021: Knowing Illusion: Bringing a Tibetan Debate into Contemporary Discourse. Vol. I: Critical Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press (2021) Knowing Illusion: Bringing a Tibetan Debate into Contemporary Discourse. Vol. II: Translation. Oxford: Oxford University Press (2021). These two polygraphs feature scholarly analyses of previously unstudied texts and demonstrate the fruitfulness of a traditional method of collaborative cross-cultural philosophy today in which Tibetan and Western scholars work together to develop joint analyses. They also demonstrate that the metaphysical and epistemological ideas and arguments developed in these debates can contribute to Western philosophy.
  • In 2016 he teamed up with a research team which was awarded an ARC Discovery funding  of $540,000 for their project (entitled: Negotiating Modernity: Buddhism between Tibet and China DP110102042) for which John Powers and Jay L. Garfield were Chief Investigators. The project is successfully brought to its completion (April 2015) with a monograph entitled Dignāga’s Investigation of The Percept (Ālambana-Parīkṣā) And Its Philosophical Legacy In India And Tibet which was reviewed and published by the Oxford University Press (2015)
  • In 2016 Sonam teamed up with Prof. Jay L. Garfield as the Principle Investigator and others Yakherds who were awarded a three-year funding (US $766,000) from the Ministry of Education of Singapore to work on research project entitled: “Bringing a Classical Tibetan Debate into Conversation with Contemporary Philosophy.”
  • In 203 the Central University of Michigan funded the Cowherds’ (of which Sonam is a member) second international collaborative project to work on Budhist philosophy of emptiness and ethics which resulted in a volume with the Cowherds Moonpaths: Ethics in the Context of Conventional Truth(Oxford University Press, 2015)

In 2011 the University of Lausanne funded The Cowherds’ (of which Sonam is a member) first international collaborative project which  to work on Buddhist philosophy which resulted in the publication of groundbreaking, Moonshadows: Conventional Truth in Buddhist Philosophy by Oxford University Press in 2012.

Funding Summary

Number of grants

3

Total funding

$437,777

Projects

Mentoring for Professional Practice: A Creativity Based Approach (2018)$13,777
Description
Graduate teachers and social workers face many challenges in their first year of practice: managing new professional environments, assuming new responsibilities, and meeting accountability standards and performance expectations (Zukas 2011) often with little systemic workplace support (Ingvarson 2014). These issues have been shown to contribute to high levels of stress and burnout (Nobel & Mcfarlane 2007; Smullens 2015), and early career attrition (House of Representatives Standing Committee in Education and Vocational Training 2007), with up to one third of teachers in OECD countries leaving within the first five years of professional practice (Ewing & Manuel 2005). In the face of such demands, opportunities to sustain creativity, curiosity, resilience and a sense of presence in the day-to-day relational practices required of teachers and social workers are limited, with a reported mismatch between early career professionals idealistic motivations and everyday experience (Abbott-Chapman 2005; Day & Gu 2010). This project will form a new interdisciplinary team to improve new teachers and social workers experiences of crossing, transitioning, [and] translating (Johnson et al 2014) their first year of professional practice. We aim to pilot a creative strengths-based mentoring approach that enables new teachers and social workers to develop their personal and social resiliency, agency, and professional identity while enacting the values and understandings that underlie mandated professional standards.
Funding
University of Tasmania ($13,777)
Scheme
Grant - CALE Hothouse Alignment Scheme
Administered By
University of Tasmania
Research Team
Hunter M; MacDonald AJ; Baltra-Ulloa AJ; McLeod K; Thakchoe S; Wise CJE
Year
2018
A Buddhist Debate and Its Contemporary Relevance (2016 - 2018)$414,000
Description
This project will engage with one of the central debates in the Tibetan philosophy concerning truth, realism and epistemic justification. It will explore the implications of this debate for subsequent Tibetan thought and for contemporary Western analytic philosophy.
Funding
Australian Research Council ($414,000)
Scheme
Grant-Discovery Projects
Administered By
Deakin University
Research Team
Powers J; Thakchoe S
Period
2016 - 2018
Grant Reference
DP160100947
An Investigation of Taktsang's Presentation of Eighteen Great Contradictions in Tsongkhapa's Philosophy and Panchen Lobsang Chokyi Gyaltsen's Response (2008)$10,000
Funding
University of Tasmania ($10,000)
Scheme
Grant-Institutional Research Scheme
Administered By
University of Tasmania
Research Team
Thakchoe S
Year
2008

Research Supervision

Sonam attracted many promising research students at UTAS specialising on Asian philosophical projects. He has had significant success in changing the research culture of the postgraduate community of Philosophy at UTAS into a much more cross-cultural, interdisciplinary and inclusive environment. Sonam has successfully supervised seven PhD theses. He welcomes expressions of interest from new MA or PhD students.

Topics that are ripe for a good PhD thesis and Sonam is most happy to work with are:

  • Madhyamaka: any topics on Madhyamaka philosophy: ethics, metaphysics, and epistemology
  • Yogācāra: topics on Buddhist Idealism and Phenomenology
  • Sautrāntika: topics on Buddhist Logic and Epistemology
  • Vaibhāṣika: topics on Buddhist cosmology, psychology and philosophy of mind
  • Mīmāṁsā / Nyāya: topics on Indian logic and epistemology
  • Vaiśeṣika: topics on Indian metaphysics
  • Taoism: topics on Philosophical Taoism
  • Zen: Topics on Philosophical Zen

Current

2

Completed

9

Current

DegreeTitleCommenced
PhDThe Red Guard & the Dragon Girl: Cultural Revolution Influences on the Bhukkuni Sangha2019
PhDA Secular Encounter with Holiness: ritual atheism, imaginative engagement in religious practice2020

Completed

DegreeTitleCompleted
PhDThe Iconography of Contemporary Tibetan Art: Deconstruction, reconstruction and iconoclasm
Candidate: Angela Mary Ryan
2017
PhDExperience and Morality: Buddhist ethics as moral phenomenology
Candidate: Daniel Timothy Aitken
2016
PhDGender and the Soteriology Debate in Buddhism: Is a Female Buddha Possible in Non-Esoteric Buddhism?
Candidate: Karma Sonam Palmo
2013
PhDNourishing the Dhamma: Vegetarianism and Animal Nonviolence in Theravada Buddhism with a special focus on Sinhala Buddhism
Candidate: James John Stewart
2012
PhDNothing Transcended: An Examination of the Metaphysical Implications of Interdependence
Candidate: Justin Mark Shimeld
2012
PhDA Theopoetic Reflection on Thomas Traherne, Meister Eckhart and Mother Julian of Norwich
Candidate: James Arthur Charlton
2011
PhDCreated Motion in Maximus the Confessor: A Dynamicist Reading
Candidate: Cullan Nicholas Joyce
2010
MastersThe Philosophy of Comparative Philosophy
Candidate: Benjamin G Cook
2008
MastersA Calculus of Consequences and Compassion: A Comparative Analysis of Mahayana Buddhist Ethics and Classical Utilitarian Ethics
Candidate: Dorjee Choephel
2006