Lennart Bach

UTAS Home Dr Lennart Bach

Lennart Bach

ARC Future Fellow for Climate Intervention

Room 213.2 , IMAS

Lennart Bach is an ARC Future Fellow for Climate Intervention at the Institute of Marine and Antarctic Studies. He is interested in marine plankton communities, the carbon cycle, and ocean-based solutions for the climate crisis.

For more information about Lennart’s research, outreach, and data tools check:


Before joining the University of Tasmania, Lennart was scientist at GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel and member of the offshore mesocosm team with a focus on seagoing experimentation.

Career summary



Thesis title



Date of award



University of Kiel



Languages (other than English)

  • German
  • French

View more on Dr Lennart Bach in WARP


  1. The marine carbon cycle: the biological carbon pump // ocean acidification // calcification
  2. Plankton ecology: food webs // evolution
  3. Negative emissions: artificial upwelling // ocean alkalinity enhancement // ocean iron fertilization

Research Themes

Lennart investigates how plankton communities are affected by climate change and how this could alter key ecosystem services provided by the oceans. This includes ocean productivity or the capacity of the oceans to absorb anthropogenic CO2.

Furthermore, he investigates ocean-based solutions for the climate crisis that could be used in future climate intervention schemes (e.g. “Ocean Iron Fertilization” or “Ocean Alkalinity Enhancement”).

Current projects

Fields of Research

  • Biological oceanography (370801)
  • Global change biology (319902)
  • Carbon sequestration science (410101)
  • Chemical oceanography (370802)
  • Environmental management (410499)
  • Environmental assessment and monitoring (410402)
  • Phycology (incl. marine grasses) (310801)
  • Animal immunology (310905)
  • Physical oceanography (370803)
  • Biogeography and phylogeography (310402)
  • Behavioural ecology (310301)

Research Objectives

  • Expanding knowledge in the earth sciences (280107)
  • Climate change adaptation measures (excl. ecosystem) (190101)
  • Atmospheric composition (incl. greenhouse gas inventory) (180102)
  • Climate change mitigation strategies (190301)
  • Oceanic processes (excl. in the Antarctic and Southern Ocean) (180506)
  • Understanding climate change (190599)
  • Marine biodiversity (180504)
  • Ecosystem adaptation to climate change (190102)
  • Effects of climate change on Antarctic and sub-Antarctic environments (excl. social impacts) (190503)
  • Global effects of climate change (excl. Australia, New Zealand, Antarctica and the South Pacific) (excl. social impacts) (190507)
  • Climate adaptive plants (269901)
  • Assessment and management of coastal and estuarine ecosystems (180201)
  • Mitigation of climate change (190399)
  • Management of greenhouse gas emissions from plant production (190310)
  • Expanding knowledge in the environmental sciences (280111)
  • Expanding knowledge in the biological sciences (280102)
  • Assessment and management of pelagic marine ecosystems (180502)
  • Fisheries - aquaculture (100299)
  • Clinical health (200199)
  • Climate change models (190501)
  • Management of greenhouse gas emissions from manufacturing activities (190308)


Total publications


Journal Article

(70 outputs)
2022Guo JA, Strzepek R, Willis A, Ferderer A, Bach LT, 'Investigating the effect of nickel concentration on phytoplankton growth to assess potential side-effects of ocean alkalinity enhancement', Biogeosciences, 19 pp. 3683-3697. ISSN 1726-4170 (2022) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.5194/bg-19-3683-2022 [eCite] [Details]

Co-authors: Guo JA; Strzepek R; Ferderer A


2022Osma N, Vargas CA, Alguero-Muniz M, Bach LT, Gomez M, et al., 'Ocean acidification induces distinct metabolic responses in subtropical zooplankton under oligotrophic conditions and after simulated upwelling', The Science of The Total Environment, 810 Article 152252. ISSN 0048-9697 (2022) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.152252 [eCite] [Details]


2022Strzepek RF, Nunn BL, Bach LT, Berges JA, Young EB, et al., 'The ongoing need for rates: can physiology and omics come together to co-design the measurements needed to understand complex ocean biogeochemistry?', Journal of Plankton Research, 44, (4) pp. 485-495. ISSN 0142-7873 (2022) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1093/plankt/fbac026 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 1Web of Science - 2

Co-authors: Strzepek RF; Boyd PW


2021Bach LT, Boyd PW, 'Seeking natural analogs to fast-forward the assessment of marine CO2 removal', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118, (40) Article e2106147118. ISSN 0027-8424 (2021) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2106147118 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 6Web of Science - 5

Co-authors: Boyd PW


2021Bach LT, Tamsitt V, Gower J, Hurd CL, Raven JA, et al., 'Testing the climate intervention potential of ocean afforestation using the Great Atlantic Sargassum Belt', Nature Communications, 12, (1) Article 2556. ISSN 2041-1723 (2021) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-22837-2 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 32Web of Science - 26

Co-authors: Hurd CL; Boyd PW


2021Baumann M, Taucher J, Paul AJ, Heinemann M, Vanharanta M, et al., 'Effect of intensity and mode of artificial upwelling on particle flux and carbon export', Frontiers in Marine Science, 8 Article 742142. ISSN 2296-7745 (2021) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2021.742142 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 5Web of Science - 4


2021Haunost M, Riebesell U, D'Amore F, Kelting O, Bach LT, 'Influence of the calcium carbonate shell of coccolithophores on ingestion and growth of a dinoflagellate predator', Frontiers in Marine Science, 8 Article 664269. ISSN 2296-7745 (2021) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2021.664269 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 2Web of Science - 3


2021Schulz KG, Achterberg EP, Aristegui J, Bach LT, Banos I, et al., 'Nitrogen loss processes in response to upwelling in a Peruvian coastal setting dominated by denitrification - a mesocosm approach', Biogeosciences, 18, (14) pp. 4305-4320. ISSN 1726-4170 (2021) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.5194/bg-18-4305-2021 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 2Web of Science - 1


2021Singh A, Bach LT, Loscher CR, Paul AJ, Ojha N, et al., 'Impact of increasing carbon dioxide on dinitrogen and carbon fixation rates under oligotrophic conditions and simulated upwelling', Limnology and Oceanography, 66, (7) pp. 2855-2867. ISSN 0024-3590 (2021) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1002/lno.11795 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 4Web of Science - 3


2021Spisla C, Taucher J, Bach LT, Haunost M, Boxhammer T, et al., 'Extreme levels of ocean acidification restructure the plankton community and biogeochemistry of a temperate coastal ecosystem: a mesocosm study', Frontiers in Marine Science, 7, (JAN) Article 611157. ISSN 2296-7745 (2021) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2020.611157 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Web of Science - 7


2020Bach LT, Paul AJ, Boxhammer T, von der Esch E, Graco M, et al., 'Factors controlling plankton community production, export flux, and particulate matter stoichiometry in the coastal upwelling system off Peru', Biogeosciences, 17 pp. 4831-4852. ISSN 1726-4170 (2020) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.5194/bg-17-4831-2020 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 10Web of Science - 9


2020Faucher G, Riebesell U, Bach LT, 'Can morphological features of coccolithophores serve as a reliable proxy to reconstruct environmental conditions of the past?', Climate of the Past, 16, (3) pp. 1007-1025. ISSN 1814-9324 (2020) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.5194/cp-16-1007-2020 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 8Web of Science - 8


2020Haunost M, Riebesell U, Bach LT, 'The calcium carbonate shell of Emiliania huxleyi provides limited protection against viral infection', Frontiers in Marine Science, 7, (SEPT) Article 530757. ISSN 2296-7745 (2020) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2020.530757 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 3Web of Science - 3


2020Hopwood MJ, Sanchez N, Polyviou D, Leiknes O, Gallego-Urrea JA, et al., 'Experiment design and bacterial abundance control extracellular H2O2 concentrations during four series of mesocosm experiments', Biogeosciences, 17, (5) pp. 1309-1326. ISSN 1726-4170 (2020) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.5194/bg-17-1309-2020 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 6Web of Science - 6


2020Paul AJ, Bach LT, 'Universal response pattern of phytoplankton growth rates to increasing CO2', New Phytologist, 228, (6) pp. 1710-1716. ISSN 1469-8137 (2020) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1111/nph.16806 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 9Web of Science - 10


2020Tames-Espinosa M, Martinez I, Romero-Kutzner V, Coca J, Alguero-Muniz M, et al., 'Metabolic responses of subtropical microplankton after a simulated deep-water upwelling event suggest a possible dominance of mixotrophy under increasing CO2 levels', Frontiers in Marine Science, 7, (MAY) Article 307. ISSN 2296-7745 (2020) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2020.00307 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Web of Science - 1


2020Taucher J, Boxhammer T, Bach LT, Paul AJ, Schartau M, et al., 'Changing carbon-to-nitrogen ratios of organic-matter export under ocean acidification', Nature Climate Change, 11 pp. 52-57. ISSN 1758-678X (2020) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1038/s41558-020-00915-5 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 8Web of Science - 8


2020Wohlrab S, John U, Klemm K, Eberlein T, Forsberg Grivogiannis AM, et al., 'Ocean acidification increases domoic acid contents during a spring to summer succession of coastal phytoplankton', Harmful Algae, 92 Article 101697. ISSN 1568-9883 (2020) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2019.101697 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 7Web of Science - 7


2019Alguero-Muniz M, Horn HG, Alvarez-Fernandez S, Spisla C, Aberle N, et al., 'Analyzing the impacts of elevated-CO2 levels on the development of a subtropical zooplankton community during oligotrophic conditions and simulated upwelling', Frontiers in Marine Science, 6 Article 61. ISSN 2296-7745 (2019) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00061 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 7Web of Science - 7


2019Bach LT, Gill SJ, Rickaby REM, Gore S, Renforth P, 'CO2 removal with enhanced weathering and ocean alkalinity enhancement: potential risks and co-benefits for marine pelagic ecosystems', Frontiers in Climate, 1, (OCT) Article 7. ISSN 2624-9553 (2019) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.3389/fclim.2019.00007 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 42


2019Bach LT, Hernandez-Hernandez N, Taucher J, Spisla C, Sforna C, et al., 'Effects of elevated CO2 on a natural diatom community in the subtropical NE Atlantic', Frontiers in Marine Science, 6 Article 75. ISSN 2296-7745 (2019) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00075 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 25Web of Science - 12


2019Bach LT, Stange P, Taucher J, Achterberg EP, Alguero-Muniz M, et al., 'The influence of plankton community structure on sinking velocity and remineralization rate of marine aggregates', Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 33, (8) pp. 971-994. ISSN 0886-6236 (2019) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1029/2019GB006256 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 29Web of Science - 27


2019Bach LT, Taucher J, 'CO2 effects on diatoms: a synthesis of more than a decade of ocean acidification experiments with natural communities', Ocean Science, 15, (4) pp. 1159-1175. ISSN 1812-0784 (2019) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.5194/os-15-1159-2019 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 23Web of Science - 25


2019Esposito M, Achterberg EP, Bach LT, Connelly DP, Riebesell U, et al., 'Application of stable carbon isotopes in a subtropical North Atlantic mesocosm study: a new approach to assess CO2 effects on the marine carbon cycle', Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, (OCT) Article 616. ISSN 2296-7745 (2019) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00616 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 9Web of Science - 7


2019Hopwood MJ, Carroll D, Hofer J, Achterberg EP, Meire L, et al., 'Highly variable iron content modulates iceberg-ocean fertilisation and potential carbon export', Nature Communications, 10 Article 5261. ISSN 2041-1723 (2019) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-13231-0 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 19Web of Science - 18


2018Alvarez-Fernandez S, Bach LT, Taucher J, Riebesell U, Sommer U, et al., 'Plankton responses to ocean acidification: the role of nutrient limitation', Progress in Oceanography, 165 pp. 11-18. ISSN 0079-6611 (2018) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1016/j.pocean.2018.04.006 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 15Web of Science - 17


2018Archer SD, Suffrian K, Posman KM, Bach LT, Matrai PA, et al., 'Processes that contribute to decreased dimethyl sulfide production in response to ocean acidification in subtropical waters', Frontiers in Marine Science, 5 Article 245. ISSN 2296-7745 (2018) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2018.00245 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 10Web of Science - 11


2018Bach LT, Lohbeck KT, Reusch TBH, Riebesell U, 'Rapid evolution of highly variable competitive abilities in a key phytoplankton species', Nature Ecology and Evolution, 2 pp. 611-613. ISSN 2397-334X (2018) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1038/s41559-018-0474-x [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 20Web of Science - 19


2018Boxhammer T, Taucher J, Bach LT, Acterberg EP, Alguero-Muniz M, et al., 'Enhanced transfer of organic matter to higher trophic levels caused by ocean acidification and its implications for export production: a mass balance approach', PLoS ONE, 13, (5) Article e0197502. ISSN 1932-6203 (2018) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0197502 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 4Web of Science - 4


2018Hernandez-Hernandez N, Bach LT, Montero MF, Taucher J, Banos I, et al., 'High CO2 under nutrient fertilization increases primary production and biomass in subtropical phytoplankton communities: a mesocosm approach', Frontiers in Marine Science, 5 Article 213. ISSN 2296-7745 (2018) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2018.00213 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 16Web of Science - 15


2018Nausch M, Achterberg EP, Bach LT, Brussaard CPD, Crawfurd KJ, et al., 'Concentrations and uptake of dissolved organic phosphorus compounds in the Baltic Sea', Frontiers in Marine Science, 5 Article 386. ISSN 2296-7745 (2018) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2018.00386 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 11Web of Science - 10


2018Riebesell U, Aberle-Malzahn N, Achterberg EP, Alguero-Muniz M, Alvarez-Fernandez S, et al., 'Toxic algal bloom induced by ocean acidification disrupts the pelagic food web', Nature Climate Change, 8 pp. 1082-1086. ISSN 1758-678X (2018) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1038/s41558-018-0344-1 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 55Web of Science - 48


2018Sett S, Schulz KG, Bach LT, Riebesell U, 'Shift towards larger diatoms in a natural phytoplankton assemblage under combined high-CO2 and warming conditions', Journal of Plankton Research, 40, (4) pp. 391-406. ISSN 0142-7873 (2018) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1093/plankt/fby018 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 19Web of Science - 19


2018Sswat M, Stiasny MH, Taucher J, Alguero-Muniz M, Bach LT, et al., 'Food web changes under ocean acidification promote herring larvae survival', Nature Ecology and Evolution, 2 pp. 836-840. ISSN 2397-334X (2018) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1038/s41559-018-0514-6 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 25Web of Science - 24


2018Stange P, Taucher J, Bach LT, Alguero-Muniz M, Horn HG, et al., 'Ocean acidification-induced restructuring of the plankton food web can influence the degradation of sinking particles', Frontiers in Marine Science, 5 Article 140. ISSN 2296-7745 (2018) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2018.00140 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 12Web of Science - 11


2018Taucher J, Stange P, Alguero-Muniz M, Bach LT, Nauendorf A, et al., 'In situ camera observations reveal major role of zooplankton in modulating marine snow formation during an upwelling-induced plankton bloom', Progress in Oceanography, 164 pp. 75-88. ISSN 0079-6611 (2018) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1016/j.pocean.2018.01.004 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 11Web of Science - 11


2018Zhang Y, Bach LT, Lohbeck KT, Schulz KG, Listmann L, et al., 'Population-specific responses in physiological rates of Emiliania huxleyi to a broad CO2 range', Biogeosciences, 15 pp. 3691-3701. ISSN 1726-4170 (2018) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.5194/bg-15-3691-2018 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 10Web of Science - 9


2017Alguero-Muniz M, Alvarez-Fernandez S, Thor P, Bach LT, Esposito M, et al., 'Ocean acidification effects on mesozooplankton community development: results from a long-term mesocosm experiment', PLoS ONE, 12, (4) Article e0175851. ISSN 1932-6203 (2017) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0175851 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 16Web of Science - 16


2017Bach LT, Alvarez-Fernandez S, Hornick T, Stuhr A, Riebesell U, 'Simulated ocean acidification reveals winners and losers in coastal phytoplankton', PLoS ONE, 12, (11) Article e0188198. ISSN 1932-6203 (2017) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188198 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 37Web of Science - 36


2017Eberlein T, Wohlrad S, Rost B, John U, Bach LT, et al., 'Effects of ocean acidification on primary production in a coastal North Sea phytoplankton community', PLoS ONE, 12, (3) Article e0172594. ISSN 1932-6203 (2017) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172594 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 22Web of Science - 22


2017Faucher G, Hoffmann L, Bach LT, Bottini C, Erba E, et al., 'Impact of trace metal concentrations on coccolithophore growth and morphology: laboratory simulations of Cretaceous stress', Biogeosciences, 14 pp. 3603-3613. ISSN 1726-4170 (2017) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.5194/bg-14-3603-2017 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 17Web of Science - 17


2017Hornick T, Bach LT, Crawfurd KJ, Spilling K, Achterberg EP, et al., 'Ocean acidification impacts bacteria-phytoplankton coupling at low-nutrient conditions', Biogeosciences, 14 pp. 1-15. ISSN 1726-4170 (2017) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.5194/bg-14-1-2017 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 14Web of Science - 13


2017Lischka S, Bach LT, Schulz K-G, Riebesell U, 'Ciliate and mesozooplankton community response to increasing CO2 levels in the Baltic Sea: insights from a large-scale mesocosm experiment', Biogeosciences, 14 pp. 447-466. ISSN 1726-4170 (2017) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.5194/bg-14-447-2017 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 10Web of Science - 10


2017Riebesell U, Bach LT, Bellerby RGJ, Monsalve JRB, Boxhammer T, et al., 'Competitive fitness of a predominant pelagic calcifier impaired by ocean acidification', Nature Geoscience, 10 pp. 19-23. ISSN 1752-0894 (2017) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1038/NGEO2854 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Web of Science - 52


2017Schulz KG, Bach LT, Bellerby RGJ, Bermudez R, Budenbender J, et al., 'Phytoplankton blooms at increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide: experimental evidence for negative effects on prymnesiophytes and positive on small picoeukaryotes', Frontiers in Marine Science, 4 Article 64. ISSN 2296-7745 (2017) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2017.00064 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 55Web of Science - 53


2017Singh A, Bach LT, Fischer T, Hauss H, Kiko R, et al., 'Niche construction by non-diazotrophs for N2 fixers in the eastern tropical North Atlantic Ocean', Geophysical Research Letters, 44, (13) pp. 6904-6913. ISSN 0094-8276 (2017) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1002/2017GL074218 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 12Web of Science - 11


2017Stange P, Bach LT, Le Moigne FAC, Taucher J, Boxhammer T, et al., 'Quantifying the time lag between organic matter production and export in the surface ocean: implications for estimates of export efficiency', Geophysical Research Letters, 44, (1) pp. 268-276. ISSN 0094-8276 (2017) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1002/2016GL070875 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 21Web of Science - 22


2017Taucher J, Bach LT, Boxhammer T, Nauendorf A, Achterberg EP, et al., 'Influence of ocean acidification and deep water upwelling on oligotrophic plankton communities in the subtropical North Atlantic: insights from an in situ mesocosm study', Frontiers in Marine Science, 4 Article 85. ISSN 2296-7745 (2017) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2017.00085 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 35Web of Science - 33


2017Taucher J, Haunost M, Boxhammer T, Bach LT, Alguero-Muniz M, et al., 'Influence of ocean acidification on plankton community structure during a winter-to-summer succession: an imaging approach indicates that copepods can benefit from elevated CO2 via indirect food web effects', PLoS ONE, 12, (2) Article e0169737. ISSN 1932-6203 (2017) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0169737 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 28Web of Science - 27


2016Almen A-K, Vehmaa A, Brutemark A, Bach L, Lischka S, et al., 'Negligible effects of ocean acidification on Eurytemora affinis (Copepoda) offspring production', Biogeosciences, 13 pp. 1037-1048. ISSN 1726-4170 (2016) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.5194/bg-13-1037-2016 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 11Web of Science - 9


2016Bach LT, Boxhammer T, Larsen A, Hildebrandt N, Schulz KG, et al., 'Influence of plankton community structure on the sinking velocity of marine aggregates', Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 30, (8) pp. 1145-1165. ISSN 0886-6236 (2016) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1002/2016GB005372 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 51Web of Science - 54


2016Bach LT, Taucher J, Boxhammer T, Ludwig A, Achterberg EP, et al., 'Influence of ocean acidification on a natural winter-to-summer plankton succession: first insights from a long-term mesocosm study draw attention to periods of low nutrient concentrations', PLoS ONE, 11, (8) Article e0159068. ISSN 1932-6203 (2016) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0159068 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 49Web of Science - 49


2016Boxhammer T, Bach LT, Czerny J, Riebesell U, 'Technical note: sampling and processing of mesocosm sediment trap material for quantitative biogeochemical analysis', Biogeosciences, 13 pp. 2849-2858. ISSN 1726-4170 (2016) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.5194/bg-13-2849-2016 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 28Web of Science - 25


2016Horn HG, Sander N, Stuhr A, Alguero-Muniz M, Bach LT, et al., 'Low CO2 sensitivity of microzooplankton communities in the Gullmar Fjord, Skagerrak: evidence from a long-term mesocosm study', PLoS ONE, 11, (11) Article e0165800. ISSN 1932-6203 (2016) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0165800 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 15Web of Science - 15


2016Nausch M, Bach LT, Czerny J, Goldstein J, Grossart H-P, et al., 'Effects of CO2 perturbation on phosphorus pool sizes and uptake in a mesocosm experiment during a low productive summer season in the northern Baltic Sea', Biogeosciences, 13 pp. 3035-3050. ISSN 1726-4170 (2016) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.5194/bg-13-3035-2016 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 6Web of Science - 7


2016Paul AJ, Achterberg EP, Bach LT, Boxhammer T, Czerny J, et al., 'No observed effect of ocean acidification on nitrogen biogeochemistry in a summer Baltic Sea plankton community', Biogeosciences, 13 pp. 3901-3913. ISSN 1726-4170 (2016) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.5194/bg-13-3901-2016 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 15Web of Science - 16


2016Webb AL, Leedham-Elvidge E, Hughes C, Hopkins FE, Malin G, et al., 'Effect of ocean acidification and elevated fCO2 on trace gas production by a Baltic Sea summer phytoplankton community', Biogeosciences, 13 pp. 4595-4613. ISSN 1726-4170 (2016) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.5194/bg-13-4595-2016 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 20Web of Science - 19


2016Xu J, Bach LT, Schulz KG, Zhao W, Gao K, et al., 'The role of coccoliths in protecting Emiliania huxleyi against stressful light and UV radiation', Biogeosciences, 13 pp. 4637-4643. ISSN 1726-4170 (2016) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.5194/bg-13-4637-2016 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 20Web of Science - 21


2015Bach LT, 'Reconsidering the role of carbonate ion concentration in calcification by marine organisms', Biogeosciences, 12 pp. 4939-4951. ISSN 1726-4170 (2015) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.5194/bg-12-4939-2015 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 58Web of Science - 54


2015Bach LT, Riebesell U, Gutowska MA, Federwisch L, Schulz KG, 'A unifying concept of coccolithophore sensitivity to changing carbonate chemistry embedded in an ecological framework', Progress in Oceanography, 135 pp. 125-138. ISSN 0079-6611 (2015) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1016/j.pocean.2015.04.012 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 88Web of Science - 86


2015Larsen T, Bach LT, Salvatteci R, Wang YV, Andersen N, et al., 'Assessing the potential of amino acid 13C patterns as a carbon source tracer in marine sediments: effects of algal growth conditions and sedimentary diagenesis', Biogeosciences, 12 pp. 4979-4992. ISSN 1726-4170 (2015) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.5194/bg-12-4979-2015 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 54Web of Science - 53


2015Paul AJ, Bach LT, Schulz K-G, Boxhammer T, Czerny J, et al., 'Effect of elevated CO2 on organic matter pools and fluxes in a summer Baltic Sea plankton community', Biogeosciences, 12 pp. 6181-6203. ISSN 1726-4170 (2015) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.5194/bg-12-6181-2015 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 55Web of Science - 55


2015Zhart Y, Bach LT, Schulz KG, Riebesell U, 'The modulating effect of light intensity on the response of the coccolithophore Gephyrocapsa oceanica to ocean acidification', Limnology and Oceanography, 60, (6) pp. 2145-2157. ISSN 0024-3590 (2015) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1002/lno.10161 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 31Web of Science - 29


2014Sett S, Bach LT, Schulz KG, Koch-Klavsen S, Lebrato M, et al., 'Temperature modulates coccolithophorid sensitivity of growth, photosynthesis and calcification to increasing seawater pCO2', PLoS ONE, 9, (2) Article e88308. ISSN 1932-6203 (2014) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088308 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 106Web of Science - 101


2014Taucher J, Bach LT, Riebesell U, Oschlies A, 'The viscosity effect on marine particle flux: a climate relevant feedback mechanism', Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 28, (4) pp. 415-422. ISSN 0886-6236 (2014) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1002/2013GB004728 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 22Web of Science - 22


2014Zhang Y, Klapper R, Lohbeck KT, Bach LT, Schulz KG, et al., 'Between- and within-population variations in thermal reaction norms of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi', Limnology and Oceanography, 59, (5) pp. 1570-1580. ISSN 0024-3590 (2014) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.4319/lo.2014.59.5.1570 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 29Web of Science - 29


2013Bach LT, Mackinder LCM, Schulz KG, Wheeler G, Schroeder DC, et al., 'Dissecting the impact of CO2 and pH on the mechanisms of photosynthesis and calcification in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi', New Phytologist, 199, (1) pp. 121-134. ISSN 0028-646X (2013) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1111/nph.12225 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 134Web of Science - 132


2012Bach LT, Bauke C, Meier KJS, Riebesell U, Schulz KG, 'Influence of changing carbonate chemistry on morphology and weight of coccoliths formed by Emiliania huxleyi', Biogeosciences, 9 pp. 3449-3463. ISSN 1726-4170 (2012) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.5194/bg-9-3449-2012 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 48Web of Science - 50


2012Bach LT, Riebesell U, Sett S, Febiri S, Rzepka P, et al., 'An approach for particle sinking velocity measurements in the 3-400 μm size range and considerations on the effect of temperature on sinking rates', Marine Biology, 159, (8) pp. 1853-1864. ISSN 0025-3162 (2012) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.1007/s00227-012-1945-2 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 79Web of Science - 77


2011Bach LT, Riebesell U, Schulz KG, 'Distinguishing between the effects of ocean acidification and ocean carbonation in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi', Limnology and Oceanography, 56, (6) pp. 2040-2050. ISSN 0024-3590 (2011) [Refereed Article]

DOI: 10.4319/lo.2011.56.6.2040 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 78Web of Science - 77



(1 outputs)
2016Monteiro FM, Bach LT, Brownlee C, Bown P, Rickaby REM, et al., 'Why marine phytoplankton calcify', Science Advances, 7, (2) pp. e1501822. ISSN 2375-2548 (2016) [Substantial Review]

DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1501822 [eCite] [Details]

Citations: Scopus - 125Web of Science - 109


Grants & Funding

Funding Summary

Number of grants


Total funding



Testing the White Ocean hypothesis to inform Ocean Alkalinity Enhancement (2022)$259,246
Ocean Alkalinity Enhancement (OAE) increases the chemical storage capacity for atmospheric CO2 in seawater. A presumed strength of OAE is the permanence of the CO2 storage, which is thought to be in the range of 100,000 years, equivalent to the residence time of alkalinity in the oceans. However, this presumption neglects that calcifying organisms are responsive to changes in carbonate chemistry, with theory predicting an increase of calcification under higher alkalinity and associated increases of seawater pH (the white ocean hypothesis). If true, OAE efficacy could be lower and carbon storage permanence much shorter than widely believed because stimulated calcification would reduce the deliberately added alkalinity, thereby unlocking sequestered CO2. This project will test the white ocean hypothesis, focusing on the Black and Caspian Seas as natural analogues for a high-alkalinity ocean. We will use satellite and Argo float data to assess if the prevalence of calcifier increases relative to other phytoplankton under elevated alkalinity. Along this process, satellite and Argo float data will also be utilized to check if phytoplankton bloom phenology is different in these high alkalinity seas than in other ocean regions, which will be an important indicator if alkalinity can impact ecosystem functioning. Furthermore, aim to ground-truth our findings by participating on a research voyage to study OAE impacts on live plankton communities including calcifiers. Next to the OAE sensitivity to calcium carbonate (CaCO3) production, OAE efficiency can be reduced if more CaCO3 is exported out of the surface ocean under increased alkalinity. We will apply a tracer-based approach in combination with a targeted CaCO3 dissolution experiment to test if increased seawater alkalinity increases CaCO3 export from the surface ocean. Our study will clarify if the efficacy of OAE could be compromised via complicated feedbacks in the global CaCO3 cycle. We will provide large-scale and real-world context for the OAE assessment, which will be central to the public debate around this CO2 removal method.
Silicon Valley Comm Foundation ($259,246)
Donation - Institutional
Administered By
University of Tasmania
Research Team
Bach LT; Chase Z; Strutton PG
Enhanced Weathering - a sustainable tool for CO2 Removal? (2020 - 2023)$787,057
This project aims to be the first to assess risks and co-benefits of Enhanced Weathering for marine pelagicecosystems. Enhanced Weathering is a powerful tool that can reduce atmospheric CO2 with significant economicco-benefits. However, it perturbs seawater chemistry and associated impacts on marine ecosystems areunknown. This project expects to combine state-of-the-art field and laboratory research to reveal whetherEnhanced Weathering is a sustainable tool for CO2 Removal. The project provides significant benefits as it buildscapacity within the currently emerging research field ocean-based climate change solutions. Within this capacity,it will help to identify a sustainable and economically viable future for Australia.
Australian Research Council ($787,057)
Administered By
University of Tasmania
Research Team
Bach LT
2020 - 2023
Grant Reference

Research Supervision

Lennart has supervised, (co-)supervised 6 Master and 8 PhD students so far, all of whom have successfully graduated. Motivated students are very welcome to approach Lennart to explore exciting project possibilities.




PhDInfluence of Ocean Alkalinity Enhancement on Phytoplankton Species Composition2021
PhDResponses of Seaweeds with Various Inorganic Carbon Uptake Mechanisms to Ocean Acidification and Ocean Warming2021
PhDPhysical oceanographic constraints on ocean-based CO2 removal for climate intervention2022
PhDImpacts of Carbonate Chemistry and Trace Metal Perturbations related to Ocean Alkalinity Enhancement on Southern Ocean Plankton Communities2022
PhDSouthern Ocean Phytoplankton Calcification2022