Research and Research Training Portfolio

Human and Animal Risk Groups

The tables on this page are indicative examples of microorganisms categorised into risk groupings based on Australian Standard 2243.3 Safety in Laboratories - Microbiological Safety and Containment.

These tables are not exhaustive, and are provided for example only. No tables are provided for Risk Group 1, as the number of relevant microorganisms is very large.

A documented risk assessment shall be conducted prior to work with any microorganisms to determine if the work needs to be conducted with additional precautions or in a higher level of Physical Containment.

Tip: Use the search function (Ctrl+F) to locate a particular microorganism of interest.

Examples of RG2 bacteria

Acidovorax spp.

Clostridium spp. (except C. botulinumi)

Legionella spp. Serratia spp.

Actinoimyces spp.

Corynebacterium diptheria, C. psuedotuberculosis

Leptospira interrogans (all serovars) Shigella spp.

Acinetobacter spp.

Coxiella burnetii (serology)

Listeria spp., Listeria monocytogenesStaphylococcus spp.

Aeromona spp.

Dermatophilus congolensis

Moraxella spp. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

Afipia spp.

Eikenella corrodens

Mycobacterium spp. other than M. tuberculosis complex Streptobacillus moniliformis

Arcanobacterium haemolyticum

Enterococcus spp.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (except multi-drug resistant strains) Streptococcus spp.

Bacillus cereus

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

Mycoplasma spp., M. pneumoniaeTreponema palladium (serology, darkfield microscopy, PCR)

Bacterioides pertussis

Escherichia coli (except genetically modified strains), includes enterpathogenic (ETEC), enteroaggregative (EAEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), and Shiga-like toxin producing (STEC)

Neisseria gonorrhoeae, unspeciated Neisseria, N. meningitidisUreapoasma ureolyticum

Borrelia spp. (serology)

Fusobacterium spp.

Nocardia spp. Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vilnificus

Brucella spp. (serology)

Gardnerella vaginalis

Pasteurella spp. Yersinia spp. (except Y. pestis)

Burkholderia spp. (except B. mallei)

Haemophilus spp.

Pseudomonas spp.  

Campylobacter

Helicobacter spp.

Rhodococcus equi

Capnocytophaga spp.

Kingella kingaeSalmonella enterica serovars

Chlamydia spp. (except C. psittaci)

Klebsiella spp. Salmonella Paratyphi A and B

Examples of RG2 parasites

Acanthamoebae spp.

Clyclospora cayetanensisHymenolepsis spp. Taenia solium

Angiostrongylus cantonensis

Cystoisospora belli

Leishmania spp. Toxocara spp.

Anasakis spp.

Diphyllobothrium latum

Loa loaToxoplasma gondii

Ascaris lumbricoides

Echinococcus spp.

Naegleria fowleriTrichinella spp.

Babesia spp.

Entamoeba hystolytica

Opisthorchis spp. Trichuris trichuria

Balamuthia mandrillaris

Enterobius vermicularis

Plasmodium spp. (human and simian) Trypanosoma spp.

Brugia spp.

Fasciola hepatica

Schistosoma spp. Wuchereria bancrofti

Clonorchis sinensis

Giardia spp.

Strongyloides stercoralis

Cryptospiridium spp.

Hookworm spp.

Taenia saginata

Examples of RG2 fungi or fungal-like organisms

Aspergillus fumigatus and A. flavus

Cryptococcus gattiiMicrosporum spp.Trichophyton spp.

Candida albicans

Cryptococcus neoformans

Scedosporium spp. 

Cladophialophora spp.

Epidermophyton floccosum

Sporothrix schenckii

Examples of RG2 viruses and prions

AdenovirusZikaHuman metapneumovirusMammalian reoviruses 1-3
Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) - non neurotropic and laboratory adapted strainsHepatitis CHuman parvovirusPrimate T-cell lymphotropic viruses type 1 and 2 (serology, tests not involving propagation or culture)
Tacaribe virus complexPegivirus (previously known as GB virus or Hepatitis G)Encephalomyocarditis virusHuman T-cell lumphotropic viruses type 1 and 2 (serology, tests not involving propagation or culture)
AstrovirusDuck hepatitis BHepatitis A virusHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2 (HIV) (serology, tests not involving propagation or culture)
Feline calicivirusOrthohepadnavirusCoxsackievirusSimian immunodeficiency virus (serology, tests not involving propagation or culture)
NorovirusHepatitis BEchovirusBarmah Forest alphavirus
Sapporo-like caliciviridaeHepatitis EEnterovirusRoss River virus
Rabbit haemmorhagic diseaseAlphaherpesvirinae simplex and varicellaPoliovirus 1,2 and 3Semliki Forest alphavirus
Hepatitis EfBetaherpesvirinae cytomegalovirus and human beta herpes virus 5, 6 and 7ParechovirusEquine viral arterits
Alphacoronavirus 229EGammaherpesvirinaeRhinovirusRubella
Porcine Epidemic Diarrhoea VirusLymphocryptovirusJC polyomavirusUnassigned rubivirus
BetacoronavirusHuman gammaherpesvirus 4 and 8BK polyomavirusDeltavirus
SARS-related coronavirus (serology, tests not involving replication)Influenza (all strains and candidate vaccine strains except those listed as RG3)Simian virus 40 (SV40)Hepatitis deltavirus
MERS-related coronavirus (serology and tests not involving propagation or culture)Human papillomavirusMolluscum contagiousum virus 
OC43 SARSMeaslesVaccinia orthopox
Mouse hepatitis virusMenangleCowpox
Dengue 1,2,3 and 4MumpsOrf
Japanese encephalitis (Nakayama strain)Human parainfluenza 2 and 4Pseudocowpox
KokoberaNewcastle disease (non-virulent enzootic strains)Gertsmann-Straussler syndrome (prion)
West Nile (Kunjin strain)Avian paramyxoviruses 2 to 9Some Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob agents
Murray Valley encephalitisSendai respirovirusBluetongue viruses (endemic strains)
West Nile (Sarafend strain)Human parainfluenza 1 and 3Epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses of deer
Saumarez ReefRespiratory syncytial pneumovirusHuman rotavirus
Yellow fever (strain 17D)Avian metapneumovirusReoviruses 1 to 3

Examples of RG3 bacteria

Not to be used at the University

Bacillus anthracis

Brucella spp. (except serology and B. ovis)Francisella tularensis (Type A)Yersinia pestis

Bartonella bacilliformis

Chlamydia psittaci

Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex 

Burkholderia mallei

Coxiella burnetii (cultures, animal work and concentrates)

Ricksettia spp.

Examples of RG3 fungi or fungal-like organisms

Not to be used at the University

Blastomyces dermatitidis

Coccidioides posadasiiParacoccidioides brasiliensis

Coccidioides immitis

Histoplasma spp.

Penicillium marneffei (syn Talaromyces marneffei)

Examples of RG3 viruses

Not to be used at the University

Lymphochoriomeningitis (LCM) neurotropic strainsJapanese encephalitisMapuera rubulavirusChikungunya
OropoucheSt Louis encephalitisNewcastle Disease (exotic strains)Eastern equine encephalitis
PhlebovirusTick-borne virusesPrimate T-cell lymphotropic viruses Type 1 and 2 (syn Human lymphotrophic viruses Type 1 and 2)Western equine encephalitis
Rift Valley Fever virus (Zinga virus)West Nile virusHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Types 1 and 2 (propagative in vitro activities)Venezuelan equine encephalitis
Hantaan and related virusesYellow FeverSimian immunodeficiency virus (propagative in vitro activities) 
SARS coronavirus (from cultures and concentrates)Avian influenza (exotic pathogenic strains)Australian Bat Lyssavirus
MERS-related coronavirus (propagative in vitro activities)Influenza (highly pathogenic strains)Rabies fixed strain (CVS II)

Examples of RG4 viruses

Not to be used at the University

Guanarito arenavirusMopeia virusesEbolaTick-born encephalitis
Junin arenavirusSabia virusMarburgHerpes virus simiae (B virus)
Lassa arenavirusCrimean-Congo haemorrhagic feverKyasanur Forest DiseaseHendra paramyxovirus
Machupo arenavirusHazara nairovirusOmsk haemorrhagic fever diseaseNipah paramyxovirus