Published: 24 Jun 2019
Discussion Group Round-Up
Sam Flight, TIA
Discussion groups are great way to see how other farmers operate. They also provide a chance to discuss seasonal activities and other relevant topics. Below is a brief overview of some discussions taking place in the TIA facilitated dairy discussion groups conducted as part of the Dairy HIGH project.
Autumn pasture management
Pasture management was a key topic for discussion in May. The potential for extending the grazing rotation to make sure cows continue to graze at the 3-leaf stage to maximise pasture growth was discussed. As the weather becomes colder, leaf emergence rate is slowing – currently at 15-20 days per leaf. This means the grazing rotation length should be 45-60 days. Farmers attending the May discussion groups were still achieving pasture growth rates of 40 kg DM/ha/day. Many farmers said they aim for a pre-calving average pasture cover of 2300 kg DM/ha. Getting above an average pasture cover of 2300 kg DM/ha could negatively impact on pasture quality and importantly on the re-growth post-grazing.
To extend the rotation, a smaller area needs to be allocated each day. The discussion group host farmers were using several strategies to maintain cow intakes whilst reducing the area offered. These included: using runoff areas for dry cows, supplementation with forages and concentrates, use of strategic nitrogen applications and drying off some cows early, based on production.
Body condition scoring
Another key activity on farms at this time of year is cow body condition scoring. By calving, there should be no more than 15% of cows below score 4.5 and no more than 15% of cows above score 5.5. Ideally, cows should be at target condition score by dry-off, as it is more difficult to improve condition scores during the dry period.
The discussion groups provided a great forum for discussing the different dry-off strategies used on-farm. Milking cows need a dry (not lactating) period to allow their udder to repair and rejuvenate. A minimum dry period of six weeks (42 days) is recommended. A dry period of eight weeks (56 days) is preferred. The length of the dry period will impact on daily milk yields achieved during the following lactation. Blanket dry cow treatment and teat sealing seems to be common practices but there was also discussion on selective dry cow treatment. Teat sealing heifers was another topic raised and generated mixed responses. Some farmers were very positive about the reduced mastitis rates they see in their heifers at calving. Other farmers felt teat sealing of heifers was an added (and difficult) job that wasn’t needed.
Further information about best practice mastitis management is available in the Countdown Farm Guidelines for Mastitis Control which can be downloaded for free from www.dairyaustralia.com.au/Countdown.
Genomics uses DNA testing as a decision-making tool to optimise animal selection and breeding decisions. Genomics can help identify genetic potential within a herd, so informed decisions can be made on culling/breeding. For example, cows identified with lower genetic potential can be culled, low-to-average genetic potential can be mated with conventional semen, and higher value or sexed semen could be used in average-to-high genetic potential cows.
Farmers in the Yolla/Wynyard discussion group raised the topic of Liver Fluke. They have noticed an increase in reported cases from abattoirs. The life cycle of the fluke includes a snail which is predominately found in wet/boggy areas. Treatment of Fluke is best done in the dry period due to the long milk withhold period for the treatment drug.
General overview of Liver Fluke
Dr Lauren Clyne BVSc (Hons) MVSc
(First published in DairyTas eNews Edition 118. Used with permission)
Liver fluke is a common parasite of cattle in south eastern Australia. Liver fluke are different to some of the more common cattle round worms in that they have an intermediate host, a small snail (Lymnaea species) that they must pass through to complete their life cycle. Eggs passed out in the faeces of affected cattle infect the snail and multiply rapidly (from 1 egg to up to 4,000 larvae). These infective larvae (cercariae) have a tail which allows them to swim through moisture up a blade of grass, where they form a cyst that can survive for a year or more in the paddock and may also persist in fodder beyond harvest.
Once ingested the larvae travel through the intestinal wall and abdominal cavity to the liver. Juvenile fluke then migrates around in the liver for several weeks, causing tissue damage and bleeding. If the challenge is high this may cause acute disease with symptoms such as anaemia and weakness, with calves being most susceptible. The most significant economic losses from liver fluke are due to chronic disease, which occurs after the fluke matures and settles in the bile ducts. Affected ducts leak protein and blood, become thickened with fibrous tissue and eventually calcify. Heavy infections may lead to bottle jaw, weight loss, and diarrhoea. More frequently chronic disease will reduce milk production without causing obvious clinical signs. Production losses are thought to be in the order of 5-10% with low level infection, thus the potential losses are high as burdens increase.
Environmental conditions play a large role in the degree of infection of the pasture. The host snail generally prefers shallow, slow moving water bodies like irrigation channels, drains, springs, and swampy areas. Recent research in Victoria has indicated that leaking troughs are a high-risk area, so it follows that any location where there is moisture seepage is a potential habitat for the snail. The larval fluke stages require moisture to migrate and will die off in dry conditions. Reproduction is most rapid at about 25°C. At low temperatures (<10 °C) the snails become dormant and development of the larvae also stops. Hence the risk of new infections is variable according to seasonal and local conditions, but generally peaks from late spring through to autumn.
Treatment options vary in their ability to kill adult and juvenile fluke. Triclabendazole (TBZ) products such as Fasinex, Tremacide and Flukazole have the widest range of activity, and should be able to kill fluke down to 2 weeks of age. These products have a 21-day milk withhold and can only be used in young stock and dry cows. Chlorsulon containing products (Baymec Gold, Ivomec Plus) are only effective against adult fluke, but have nil milk withhold and thus can be used during lactation. Ideally dry stock should be treated with TBZ product in April-May when infective levels in pasture is high. A second treatment to reduce the adult fluke population is advised in August-September (e.g. Ivomec Plus). Heavily infected herds may need a third treatment of a TBZ product in January-February. Treatment of lactating cows is generally limited to TBZ at dry off and an optional adult treatment during lactation. Oxyclozanide (Nilzan) is also an option during lactation that is effective against adults but has been associated with negative side effects (milk drop, diarrhoea, nervous behaviour, recumbency). Unfortunately, after 40 years of use resistance to TBZ has been detected on some farms and should be considered when response to treatment is poor.
Tests available to assess fluke burdens on a herd level include faecal egg counts (specifically for fluke eggs), antibody levels in the bulk milk tank and a newer test that looks for fluke protein in faeces (CoproELISA antigen test). The CoproELISA test is becoming popular as a means of assessing herd prevalence and the severity of the infection within a cow. It can also be used to detect drench resistance by repeating the test a few weeks after treatment.
Eradication of liver fluke is near impossible due to the difficulties of controlling the host snail and larvae in the environment. A strategic approach of environmental management (e.g. fencing off drains/channels, fixing leaky troughs) combined with correctly timed treatments is necessary to control fluke levels on affected farms. As drug resistance develops to commonly used treatments an integrated approach will be even more critical.