Courses & Units

Analysis of Observations KGG370




Observations of many different types are central to the determination of information across the geospatial sciences. In this unit, students will gain knowledge in the theory and practical application of least squares adjustment techniques including the reduction of raw measurements; weighted adjustment of observations; detection of outliers; parameter uncertainty; network design and optimisation of observations.
The unit focuses on providing students with an appreciation of uncertainty and how it is treated and communicated within the land surveying profession. Students are introduced to a range of advanced adjustment concepts
Case studies are used to provide practical application of the material presented in the interactive lectures. Tutorial exercises provide students learning opportunities that include the use of different computational and adjustment packages used across industry.
The unit brings together the analysis of different observation types that students have used in KGG255 Surveying 1 and KGG220 Surveying 2 and extends to provide examples relevant to KGG306 GNSS: Global Navigation Satellite Systems and KGG307 Geodesy: Observing Our Changing Planet.


Unit name Analysis of Observations
Unit code KGG370
Credit points 12.5
College/School College of Sciences and Engineering
School of Geography, Planning, and Spatial Sciences
Discipline Geography, Planning, and Spatial Sciences
Coordinator Doctor Christopher Watson
Available as student elective? Yes
Delivered By University of Tasmania
Level Advanced


Location Study period Attendance options Available to
Hobart Semester 1 On-Campus International Domestic


International students
Domestic students

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Key Dates

Study Period Start date Census date WW date End date
Semester 1 21/2/2022 22/3/2022 11/4/2022 29/5/2022

* The Final WW Date is the final date from which you can withdraw from the unit without academic penalty, however you will still incur a financial liability (see withdrawal dates explained for more information).

Unit census dates currently displaying for 2022 are indicative and subject to change. Finalised census dates for 2022 will be available from the 1st October 2021. Note census date cutoff is 11.59pm AEST (AEDT during October to March).

About Census Dates

Learning Outcomes

  • Undertake a least squares adjustment by first principles and using matrix notation.
  • Apply different software packages to adjust spatial data.
  • Interpret adjustment output in relation to relevant industry standards and specifications.
  • Appraise different survey methodologies using adjustment output.
Field of Education Commencing Student Contribution 1 Grandfathered Student Contribution 1 Approved Pathway Course Student Contribution 2 Domestic Full Fee
031101 $1,002.00 $1,002.00 not applicable $2,798.00
  • Available as a Commonwealth Supported Place
  • HECS-HELP is available on this unit, depending on your eligibility3
  • FEE-HELP is available on this unit, depending on your eligibility4

1 Please refer here more information on student contribution amounts.
2 Information on eligibility and Approved Pathway courses can be found here
3 Please refer here for eligibility for HECS-HELP
4 Please refer here for eligibility for FEE-HELP

If you have any questions in relation to the fees, please contact UConnect or more information is available on StudyAssist.

Please note: international students should refer to this page to get an indicative course cost.



KMA152 - Mathematics 1A AND KMA154 - Mathematics 1B AND KGG255 - Surveying 1


Teaching Pattern

39 lectures, 13 tutorials

AssessmentOral Exam (10%)|Written Exam (50%)|Tutorial Report 1: Adjustment Foundations (4%)|Tutorial Report 2: Basic Least Squares Adjustments (6%)|Tutorial Report 3: Network Adjustments (10%)|Tutorial Report 4: A Posteriori Analysis (10%)|Tutorial Report 5: Positional Uncertainty (10%)
TimetableView the lecture timetable | View the full unit timetable



Required readings will be listed in the unit outline prior to the start of classes.

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